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Table 2 Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on nutritional parameters

From: Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on nutritional, immunological, and cardiac parameters in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study

Variables Before 3 months 6 months
Laboratory parameters    
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) 47.5 ± 15.5 42.9 ± 12.0 45.4 ± 12.7
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 6.9 ± 2.8 6.7 ± 2.2 6.6 ± 2.3
 Albumin (g/dL) 3.2 ± 0.3 3.1 ± 0.4 3.2 ± 0.4
 Transthyretin (mg/dL) 22.4 ± 5.9 22.5 ± 6.5 24.7 ± 9.7
 Transferrin (mg/dL) 154.9 ± 40.5 175.5 ± 42.6** 174.9 ± 47.8**
 Retinol-binding protein (mg/dL) 8.9 ± 2.5 9.2 ± 2.8 10.0 ± 3.4*
 Total lymphocyte count (/μL) 1190 ± 440 1250 ± 610 1150 ± 430
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 41 ± 13 44 ± 13 43 ± 14
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 73 ± 21 77 ± 27 81 ± 29*
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 91 ± 56 107 ± 81 103 ± 58*
 Free fatty acid (mEq/L) 0.2 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.2 0.1 ± 0.1
 Ceruloplasmin (mg/dL) 22.5 ± 4.9 23.2 ± 10.3 22.6 ± 4.7
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 10.0 ± 1.2 10.2 ± 2.0 10.2 ± 1.7
 Ammonia (μg/dL) 21 ± 10 32 ± 10** 36 ± 13**
Nutritional assessment index    
 GNRI 83.9 ± 7.9 82.3 ± 7.8 82.7 ± 8.8
 PNI 38.2 ± 3.7 37.5 ± 4.3 37.3 ± 4.8
 nPCR 0.73 ± 0.04 0.66 ± 0.03 0.70 ± 0.04
Kt/V for urea 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1
 %CGR 69.5 ± 6.8 65.7 ± 5.5 63.9 ± 5.4
Anthropometric parameters    
 Dry weight (kg) 48.0 ± 12.5 47.8 ± 12.1 47.7 ± 11.7
 BMI (kg/m2) 19.0 ± 3.2 18.9 ± 3.0 18.8 ± 2.9
 TMA/TBA ratioa 9.1 ± 3.0 ND 8.8 ± 3.1
 Handgrip strength (kg)b 16.0 ± 8.1 ND 16.1 ± 8.6
 MAC (cm) 21.8 ± 3.1 ND 23.1 ± 3.8
 TSF (cm) 0.4 ± 0.3 ND 0.6 ± 0.3*
 MAMC (cm) 20.5 ± 3.1 ND 21.3 ± 3.6
  1. BMI body mass index, GNRI geriatric nutritional risk index, PNI prognostic nutrition index, nPCR normalized protein catabolic rate, Kt/V for urea clearance of urea normalized to total body water using a single pool model, %CGR creatinine generation rate, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, TMA thigh muscle area, TBA thigh bone area, MAC midarm circumference, TSF triceps skinfold thickness, MAMC midarm muscle circumference, ND not done, SD standard deviation
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. before treatment. Data, means ± SD
  3. aData were available for 20 out of 21 patients
  4. bData were available for 16 out of 21 patients