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Table 3 Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on immunological, inflammatory parameters, and trace elements

From: Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on nutritional, immunological, and cardiac parameters in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study

Variables Before 3 months 6 months
Immunological and inflammatory parameters    
 NK cell activity; E/T ratio 10:1 (%) 10.2 ± 8.8 10.5 ± 9.9 12.6 ± 12.4*
       E/T ratio 20:1 (%) 17.3 ± 14.1 17.4 ± 15.3 20.8 ± 17.7**
 CD4/CD8 ratio 2.2 ± 3.3 2.0 ± 2.2 2.1 ± 2.3
 IgG (mg/dL) 1460 ± 410 1430 ± 350 1490 ± 400
 IL-6 (pg/mL) 5.2 ± 2.5 7.8 ± 5.1* 7.7 ± 5.0
 sIL-2R (U/mL) 1311 ± 1020 1103 ± 448 1233 ± 498
 C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.6 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 1.8
Trace elements    
 Selenium (μg/L) 60.4 ± 13.9 63.5 ± 17.0 52.4 ± 12.2*
 Zinc (μg/dL) 48.5 ± 8.6 52.3 ± 10.1 51.7 ± 9.6
 Copper (μg/dL) 94.0 ± 19.1 90.8 ± 21.9 91.4 ± 23.0
  1. NK cell natural killer cell, E/T ratio effector cells/target cells ratio, CD cluster of differentiation, IgG immunoglobulin G, IL-6 interleukin-6, sIL-2R soluble interleukin-2 receptor, SD standard deviation
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. before treatment. Data, means ± SD