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Table 2 Microbiological Quality Standard for Dialysis Fluids in Japan, excerpt from reference [14]

From: The central dialysis fluid delivery system (CDDS): is it specialty in Japan?

Attainment level  
 Dialysis water (reverse osmosis (RO) water)  
  Bacteria <100 CFU/ml  
  Endotoxin <0.050 EU/ml  
 Standard dialysis fluid  
  Bacteria <100 CFU/ml  
  Endotoxin <0.050 EU/ml  
 Ultrapure dialysis fluid  
  Bacteria <0.1 CFU/ml  
  Endotoxin <0.001 EU/ml (less than detection limit)  
 Online-prepared substitution fluid  
  Sterile and non-pyrogenic  
  Bacteria <10–6  
  Endotoxin <0.001 EU/ml (less than detection limit)  
Indications for dialysis system based on the quality of dialysis fluids  
 Standard dialysis fluid  
  Minimum requirement for dialysis therapy  
 Ultrapure dialysis fluida  
  Dialysis fluid for the preparation of online substitution fluid.  
  Dialysis system for active use of back filtrate  
  Push and pull HDF system  
  Internal filtration-enhanced dialysis (IFEHD)  
 Online-prepared substitution fluid  
  Online HDF/online hemofiltration  
  1. aUltrapure dialysis fluid is desirable for all dialysis modalities