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Table 1 The characteristics of the study patients and temporal trends for 7 years

From: Effect of long-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on hemoglobin levels at the initiation of dialysis

  Total 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 p value
Patients number 1263 195 162 210 184 188 189 135  
Age, years 64.5 ± 14.0 60.2 ± 14.8 63.5 ± 12.9 63.5 ± 14.1 65.9 ± 14.1 64.8 ± 13.5 67.8 ± 13.3 66.6 ± 13.9 .000
Male, % 65 65 65 68 63 68 60 64 .722
Diabetes, % 46 50 48 43 51 44 42 45 .517
BMI, kg/m2 23.1 ± 4.7 22.6 ± 5.5 23.1 ± 3.9 22.7 ± 3.4 23.1 ± 4.5 23.7 ± 6.4 22.9 ± 4.6 23.8 ± 4.2 .212
Duration of nephrologist care, days 625 552 432 608 566 697 796 775 .109
[174, 1557] [83, 1789] [175, 1450] [185, 1346] [138, 1356] [160, 1860] [206, 1530] [254, 1827]
Vascular access, % 70 68 70 70 69 68 68 77 .615
Primary disease, % .000
Diabetic nephropathy 44 47 48 42 47 43 40 40  
Glomerulonephritis 21 31 17 25 15 18 18 23  
Nephrosclerosis 16 7 17 10 19 19 25 22  
PCK 4 2 5 4 3 5 5 2  
Others 16 14 14 20 17 16 13 13  
Systolic BP, mmHg 155 ± 25 152 ± 25 159 ± 24 154 ± 25 153 ± 26 155 ± 25 154 ± 23 156 ± 25 .222
Diastolic BP, mmHg 78 ± 14 77 ± 13 80 ± 14 79 ± 13 76 ± 14 79 ± 14 78 ± 14 81 ± 14 .067
CTR, % 53.3 ± 6.7 52.6 ± 6.5 53.9 ± 6.3 53.4 ± 6.9 53.7 ± 6.6 53.5 ± 6.4 52.9 ± 7.9 53.2 ± 6.2 .659
Hemoglobin, g/dL 8.7 ± 1.5 8.5 ± 1.6 8.6 ± 1.3 8.6 ± 1.6 8.7 ± 1.4 8.6 ± 1.5 9.0 ± 1.5 9.1 ± 1.4 .002
Hemoglobin/dose of ESAa 0.46 0.48 0.43 0.43 0.58 0.58 0.46 0.40 .050
[0.35, 0.72] [0.35, 0.71] [0.35, 0.70] [0.35, 0.69] [0.38, 0.77] [0.38, 0.73] [0.33, 0.76] [0.27, 0.73]
Albumin, g/dL 3.3 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.5 3.3 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.5 .153
Creatinine, mg/dL 9.4 ± 3.2 9.8 ± 3.8 9.7 ± 3.5 9.1 ± 2.9 9.4 ± 3.2 9.1 ± 3.1 9.3 ± 3.1 9.6 ± 3.0 .228
eGFR, mL/min/1.732 5.1 ± 2.2 5.2 ± 2.2 5.0 ± 1.9 5.4 ± 2.1 5.2 ± 2.9 5.3 ± 1.8 5.0 ± 1.9 4.8 ± 1.9 .280
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 172 ± 50 177 ± 53 180 ± 53 170 ± 47 170 ± 42 169 ± 56 171 ± 52 168 ± 44 .401
Triglyceride, mg/dL 111 113 110 106 114 103 126 109 .272
[81, 157] [80, 156] [79, 167] [79, 201] [81, 152] [76, 161] [88, 163] [83, 149]
HDL-C, mg/dL 48 ± 16 49 ± 18 50 ± 19 48 ± 15 46 ± 14 49 ± 17 49 ± 16 46 ± 15 .223
Calcium, mg/dL 7.8 ± 0.9 7.8 ± 1.0 7.8 ± 1.0 7.9 ± 0.9 7.8 ± 0.9 7.8 ± 0.9 8.0 ± 0.9 7.8 ± 0.9 .092
Phosphate, mg/dL 6.1 ± 1.6 6.1 ± 1.6 5.9 ± 1.5 5.9 ± 1.4 6.1 ± 1.7 6.1 ± 1.5 6.0 ± 1.6 6.4 ± 1.5 .045
Ca x P product 47 ± 13 47 ± 13 46 ± 13 46 ± 12 46 ± 14 47 ± 12 48 ± 14 49 ± 15 .260
i-PTH, pg/mL 271 210 264 300 285 272 266 331 .000
[169, 414] [141, 346] [179, 382] [170, 425] [185, 416] [171, 426] [159, 393] [188, 468]
CRP, mg/dL 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.13 .000
[0.04, 0.17] [0.04, 0.15] [0.0, 0.14] [0.0, 0.13] [0.02, 0.10] [0.02, 0.20] [0.05, 0.20] [0.05, 0.20]
Glucose, mg/dL 137 ± 52 142 ± 61 144 ± 61 135 ± 47 136 ± 53 137 ± 49 130 ± 47 139 ± 44 .243
Fe, μg/dL 67 ± 35 66 ± 36 64 ± 31 69 ± 33 68 ± 33 70 ± 37 66 ± 35 66 ± 39 .772
TIBC, μg/dL 233 ± 46 229 ± 46 239 ± 41 236 ± 51 229 ± 49 230 ± 48 231 ± 42 236 ± 43 .352
Ferritin, ng/dL 117 117 111 141 110 124 126 101 .309
[57, 209] [61, 199] [56, 194] [68, 232] [51, 114] [57, 225] [56, 213] [42, 187]
ESA, % 78 81 74 77 79 79 80 80 .810
long-acting ESA, % 15 0 0 0 0 2 49 80 .000
Dose of ESA, per month 12,000 12,000 12,000 24,000 12,000 12,000 24,000 24,000 .001
[12,000, 24,000] [12,000, 24,000] [12,000, 24,000] [12,000, 24,000] [12,000, 24,000] [12,000, 24,000] [12,000, 24,000] [12,000, 33,000]
ARB/ACE-I, % 64 56 67 69 61 70 65 61 .051
Vitamin D, % 31 26 34 271 23 36 32 41 .007
AST-120, % 19 17 18 27 19 19 16 14 0.054
Iron, % 19 31 18 20 18 14 23 19 .403
  1. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD, median [interquartile range], or percentage
  2. BMI body mass index, PCK polycystic kidney disease, BP blood pressure, CTR cardiothoracic ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL-C high density lipoprotein, i-PTH intact parathyroid hormone, CRP C-reactive protein, TIBC total iron-binding capacity, ESA erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, ACE-I angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
  3. aHemoglobin was corrected by dose of ESA per 1000units