Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants

From: The add-on effect of the Mutsu-Senshi® skin cooling device for needle insertion pain in hemodialysis patients: a multicenter prospective study

  Patients (n = 98)
Age (years, mean ± SD) 60.5 ± 13.8
Sex (men) 65 (66 %)
Hemodialysis vintage (years, median [IQR]) 4 [2–9]
Reasons for ESRD  
 Diabetes 46 (47 %)
 Chronic glomerular nephritis 12 (12 %)
 Nephrosclerosis 9 (9 %)
 Polycystic kidney disease 5 (5 %)
 Others 4 (4 %)
 Unknown 22 (22 %)
Needle insertion site  
 Forearm 91 (93 %)
 Upper arm 7 (7 %)
Use of lidocaine patch (yes) 40 (41 %)
Diameter of dialysis needle (gauge)  
 18 40 (41 %)
 17 27 (28 %)
 16 28 (29 %)
 15 3 (3 %)
  1. ESRD end-stage renal disease, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation