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Table 2 Multivariate logistic regression analyses for favoring Mutsu-Senshi® (modified visual analog scale >0)

From: The add-on effect of the Mutsu-Senshi® skin cooling device for needle insertion pain in hemodialysis patients: a multicenter prospective study

  Adjusted odds ratio 95 % CI P value
Age    
 <65 years Reference   
 ≥65 years 1.20 0.47–3.07 0.705
Sex    
 Men Reference   
 Women 0.76 0.25–2.35 0.634
Dialysis vintage    
 <5 years Reference   
 ≥5 years 1.27 0.49–3.27 0.624
Reason for ESRD    
 Non-diabetes Reference   
 Diabetes 0.63 0.23–1.75 0.375
Needle insertion site    
 Forearm Reference   
 Upper arm 0.70 0.13-3.76 0.674
Lidocaine patch use    
 No Reference   
 Yes 1.12 0.42-2.98 0.815
Needle diameter    
 18 gauge Reference   
 15–17 gauge 5.69 2.17–14.96 <0.001
  1. CI confidence interval, ESRD end-stage renal disease