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Table 1 Symptoms of AV fistula-related venous hypertension

From: An unusual case of arteriovenous fistula-related venous hypertension: sonographic detection of a culprit perforating vein with movie and compact review

Edema of the upper limb
Pain of the upper limb
A decreased range of upper limb joint motion
Ulceration, pigmentation, and dermatosclerosis of the upper limb
Superficial venous dilatation over the chest and shouldera
Nasal bleedingb
  1. aIn the case of axillary, subclavian, or brachiocephalic vein stenosis
  2. bIn the case of brachiocephalic vein or superior vena cava stenosis