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Table 1 Associating factors for vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients

From: Impact of vascular calcification on cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients: clinical significance, mechanisms and possible strategies for treatment

Inducers Inhibitors Target for treatment
Aging Fetuin A Phosphate
Phosphate/calcium MGP Calcium
Inflammation Pyrophosphate Intact PTH
Aldosterone Osteopontin Vitamin D
Warfarin use Osteoprotegerin Vitamin K
AGEs/diabetes BMP7 Acidosis
BMP2/4 Adiponectin Inflammation
Leptin Collagen IV Dialysate
Collagen I/fibronectin   
High blood pressure   
  1. Inducers and inhibitors for vascular calcifications are listed. As shown in the table, several factors associate the pathophysiology of vascular calcification. Several inhibitor systems exist in the human body, and it might mean the importance to protect from ectopic vascular calcification. If the inhibitory system would fail, serious complication might occur. Treatment target which we can intervene are also listed
  2. Abbreviations: AGEs advanced glycation end products, BMP bone morphogenic protein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, MGP matrix Gla protein, PTH; parathyroid hormone