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Table 1 Healthy and dysfunctional endothelium

From: An overview of AVF maturation and endothelial dysfunction in an advanced renal failure

Healthy endothelium Endothelial dysfunction
Vasodilatory (↑NO, ↑PGI2) Impaired vasodilation (↓NO, ↓PGI2)
Decrease oxidative stress, ↓uric acid Increase oxidative stress (↑ nitrotyrosine and uric acid)
Anticoagulant (↓PAI-1, vWF, P-selectin) Procoagulant (↑PAI-1, vWF, P-selectin)
Rise in endothelial progenitor cells and decrease molecular markers of damage (circulating endothelial cells, microparticles) Decrement in endothelial progenitor cells and increase molecular markers of damage (circulating endothelial cells, microparticles)
Anti-inflammatory biomarkers (↓sICAM, sVCAM, E-selectin, CRP, TNF-alpha, IL-6, MCP-1) Pro-inflammatory biomarkers (↑sICAM, sVCAM, E-selectin, CRP, TNF-alpha, IL-6, MCP-1)
  1. CRP C-reactive protein, IL-6 interleukin-6, NO nitric oxide, PAI-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, PGI2 prostacyclin, sICAM soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, sVCAM soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, TNF-α tumour necrosis factor alpha, vWF von Willebrand factor