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Table 4 Associated mechanisms of PUBS

From: Purple urine bag syndrome in benign prostatic hyperplasia patient

Increased available tryptophan substrate for conversion  
Alkaline urine facilitates indoxyl oxidation  
Increased time for bacterial deamination in constipation and slow gut motility  
Female short urethra prone to UTI  
Catheter in situ bacteriuria  
In UTI, more bacterial sulfatase/phosphatase availability  
In uremic patients, impaired clearance of indoxyl sulfate