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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Effects of supervised exercise on depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Studies Year Location Mean age (SD) Mean duration of dialysis therapy (SD), years No. in groups (control, training) Duration of intervention (weeks or months) Type of intervention in control group Type of intervention in exercise group Training program Intensity of program Measure
Carmack et al. [26] 1995 USA All 44.1 No data Ex 23
Con 25
10 weeks Usual care Intradialytic Aerobic exercise for 20 – 30 min using cycle ergometer 3 times per week No data CES-D
Giannaki et al. [27] 2013 Greece Ex 56.4 (12.5)
Con 55.7 (10.4)
Total: no data
Ex 3.9 (1.3)
Con 4.0 (1.7)
Total: no data
Ex 15
Con 7
6 months Placebo Intradialytic Progressive aerobic exercise training using a recumbent cycle ergometer
3 times a week
60–65% of the patient’s maximal exercise capacity (in Watts) SDS
van Vilsteren et al. [28] 2005 The Netherlands Ex 52 (15)
Con 58 (16)
Ex 3.22 (4.08) years
Con 3.90 (4.41) years
Ex 53
Con 43
12 weeks Usual care Pre-dialysis strength training Intradialytic
Exercise counseling
A 5–10-min warm up and cool down
A 20-min exercise program including calisthenics, steps, flexibility, and low weight resistance training
Cycling 20–30 min 2–3 times per week
Techniques based on the transtheoretical model, motivational interviews, and health counseling
Borg scale 12–16 (< 60% maximal capacity) SDS
Kouidi et al. [29] 1997 Greece Ex 49.6 (12.1)
Con 52.8 (10.2)
Ex 5.9 (4.9)
Con 6.2 (5.4)
Ex 20
Con 11
6 months Usual care Non-dialysis days Supervised exercise (stationary cycling, walking or jogging, calisthenics, aerobics, swimming, and/or game sports) 90 min 3–4 times weekly 50–60% of their VO2max or 60–70% of their HRmax BDI
Ouzouni et al. [30] 2009 Greece Ex 47.4 (15.7)
Con 50.5 (11.7)
Ex 7.7 (7.0)
Con 8.6 (6.0)
Ex 19
Con 14
10 months Usual care Intradialytic 60–90 min 3 times weekly (cycling: 30 min; strength training: 30 min; flexibility exercise: 30 min) Borg scale 13–14 (“somewhat hard”) BDI
  1. SD standard deviation, Ex exercise, Con control, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, SDS Self-rating Depression Scale, BDI Beck Depression Inventory