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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of non-diabetic patients

From: Is hemodialysis itself a risk factor for dementia? An analysis of nationwide registry data of patients on maintenance hemodialysis in Japan

   Hemodialysis duration (year)   
   0~ 1 (%) 2~4 (%) 5~9 (%) 10~14 (%) 15~19 (%) 20~24 (%) 25~ (%) Total (%)
Total   14,787 (100.0) 17,293 (100.0) 19,984 (100.0) 12,479 (100.0) 7452 (100.0) 4138 (100.0) 4074 (100.0) 80,207 (100.0)
Sex Male 9106 (61.6) 10,515 (60.8) 11,814 (59.1) 7144 (57.2) 4169 (55.9) 2275 (55.0) 2251 (55.3) 47,274 (58.9)
  Female 5681 (38.4) 6778 (39.2) 8170 (40.9) 5335 (42.8) 3283 (44.1) 1863 (45.0) 1823 (44.7) 32,933 (41.1)
Age (years old) 15–64 5980 (40.4) 7584 (43.9) 10,258 (51.3) 7245 (58.1) 4654 (62.5) 2635 (63.7) 2732 (67.1) 41,088 (51.2)
  65–74 4066 (27.5) 4900 (28.3) 5612 (28.1) 3499 (28.0) 2092 (28.1) 1196 (28.9) 1133 (27.8) 22,498 (28.0)
  < 75 4741 (32.1) 4809 (27.8) 4114 (20.6) 1735 (13.9) 706 (9.5) 307 (7.4) 209 (5.1) 16,621 (20.7)
With history of myocardial infarction 630 (4.3) 780 (4.5) 767 (3.8) 467 (3.7) 314 (4.2) 187 (4.5) 190 (4.7) 3335 (4.2)
With history of limb amputation 101 (0.7) 101 (0.6) 137 (0.7) 100 (0.8) 44 (0.6) 33 (0.8) 48 (1.2) 564 (0.7)
With history of hip fracture 181 (1.2) 279 (1.6) 310 (1.6) 175 (1.4) 104 (1.4) 89 (2.2) 190 (4.7) 1328 (1.7)
ADL No symptoms 8122 (54.9) 10,072 (58.2) 12,140 (60.7) 7742 (62.0) 4553 (61.1) 2282 (55.1) 1733 (42.5) 46,644 (58.2)
  Moderate symptoms 4512 (30.5) 5153 (29.8) 5896 (29.5) 3641 (29.2) 2269 (30.4) 1414 (34.2) 1518 (37.3) 24,403 (30.4)
  ≥ 50% sitting up§ 1333 (9.0) 1307 (7.6) 1174 (5.9) 704 (5.6) 370 (5.0) 257 (6.2) 466 (11.4) 5611 (7.0)
  ≥ 50% in bed# 496 (3.4) 429 (2.5) 416 (2.1) 176 (1.4) 125 (1.7) 96 (2.3) 206 (5.1) 1944 (2.4)
  Whole day in bed 154 (1.0) 100 (0.6) 115 (0.6) 58 (0.5) 42 (0.6) 32 (0.8) 87 (2.1) 588 (0.7)
Place of residence Homes 13,836 (93.6) 16,614 (96.1) 19,359 (96.9) 12,138 (97.3) 7250 (97.3) 4022 (97.2) 3838 (94.2) 77,057 (96.1)
  Care facilities^ 164 (1.1) 203 (1.2) 162 (0.8) 76 (0.6) 38 (0.5) 16 (0.4) 27 (0.7) 686 (0.9)
  Hospitals 694 (4.7) 335 (1.9) 316 (1.6) 170 (1.4) 106 (1.4) 62 (1.5) 163 (4.0) 1846 (2.3)
With dementia at the end of 2010 669 (4.5) 681 (3.9) 599 (3.0) 285 (2.3) 108 (1.4) 58 (1.4) 39 (1.0) 2439 (3.0)
 Age (years old)* 66.2 ± 14.0 65.1 ± 13.8 63.0 ± 13.4 61.2 ± 12.5 60.2 ± 11.4 60.4 ± 10.1 60.8 ± 8.5 63.3 ± 13.1
 Kt/V* 1.25 ± 0.3 1.39 ± 0.3 1.46 ± 0.3 1.52 ± 0.3 1.54 ± 0.3 1.56 ± 0.3 1.57 ± 0.3 1.43 ± 0.3
 Body mass index (kg/m2)* 21.4 ± 3.3 21.5 ± 3.4 21.3 ± 3.3 20.8 ± 3.0 20.4 ± 2.9 20.2 ± 2.7 19.8 ± 2.7 21.0 ± 3.2
 Serum albumin level (g/dl)* 3.70 ± 0.4 3.77 ± 0.4 3.79 ± 0.4 3.80 ± 0.3 3.80 ± 0.4 3.77 ± 0.3 3.71 ± 0.4 3.77 ± 0.4
 Serum CRP level (mg/dl)* 0.46 ± 1.6 0.38 ± 1.2 0.36 ± 1.2 0.36 ± 1.3 0.39 ± 1.4 0.38 ± 1.4 0.47 ± 1.4 0.39 ± 1.3
 Hemoglobin level (g/dl)* 10.5 ± 1.3 10.6 ± 1.2 10.6 ± 1.2 10.7 ± 1.2 10.7 ± 1.2 10.7 ± 1.2 10.6 ± 1.3 10.6 ± 1.2
  1. ADLs activities of daily living, CRP C-reactive protein
  2. *Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  3. No symptoms (the patient can perform social activities without symptoms and behave without restrictions)
  4. Moderate symptoms (the patient has mild symptoms and has trouble with physical work, but can walk and do light and sedentary work, such as light domestic and clerical work)
  5. §≥ 50% sitting up (the patient can walk and take care of him/herself, but sometimes requires care. The patient can sit up at least half of the day, but cannot do light work)
  6. #≥ 50% in bed (the patient can take care of him/herself to some extent, but often requires care and is in bed at least half of the day)
  7. Whole day in bed (the patient cannot take care of him/herself and requires constant care. The patient must be in bed all day)
  8. Patients’ own home
  9. ^Care facilities (e.g., homes with care services; nursing homes, such as private nursing homes without national aid and nursing homes for families with financial difficulties; group homes; vocational centers; or relief facilities)
  10. Hospitals (e.g., health service facilities for the elderly; beds for general patients, patients at chronic stage, patients requiring rehabilitation, and patients with mental illness and infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis)