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Table 1 Primary outcome and patient characteristic at ICU admission

From: l-carnitine in critically ill patients—a case series study

  All patients f-Carnitine < 36 f-Carnitine > 36 p value
Patients (%) 64 (100.0) 15 (23.4) 49 (76.6)  
f-Carnitine 50.5 (36.8–80.3) 30.0 (25.5–34.2) 57.9 (46.0–100.3) < 0.01
Age (year) 62.8 ± 17.4 60.1 ± 17.3 63.6 ± 17.5 0.49
Male (%) 41 (64.0) 7 (46.6) 34 (69.3) 0.13
Weight (kg) 57.4 ± 11.7 58.7 ± 9.6 56.7 ± 12.3 0.56
Body mass index 21.6 ± 3.8 23.3 ± 2.9 21.1 ± 3.9 0.06
Comorbidity     
 Diabetes mellitus 10 (15.6) 3 (20.0) 7 (14.2) 0.68
 Hyperlipidemia 3 (4.6) 0 (0) 3 (6.1) 1.0
 Cirrhosis 4 (6.2) 1 (6.6) 3 (6.1) 1.0
 Chronic kidney disease 5 (7.8) 2 (13.3) 3 (6.1) 0.3
 Hemodialysis 4 (6.2) 2 (13.3) 2 (4.0) 0.23
APACHE II score 26.9 ± 10.4 25.5 ± 10.8 27.4 ± 10.3 0.56
SOFA§ score 8.1 ± 4.8 6.1 ± 3.9 8.8 ± 5.0 0.06
Diagnosis, no. (%)     
 Sepsis 18 (28.1) 2 (13.3) 16 (32.6) 0.19
 Gastrointestinal disorder 13 (20.3) 5 (33.3) 8 (16.3) 0.16
 Neurological disorder 9 (14.0) 3 (20) 6 (12.2) 0.42
 Trauma 10 (15.6) 2 (13.3) 8 (16.3) 1.0
Patient origin     0.08
 Emergency department 22 (34.3) 8 (53.3) 14 (28.5)  
 General ward 17 (26.5) 1 (6.6) 16 (32.6)  
 Other hospital 25 (39.0) 6 (40.0) 19 (38.7)  
Fasting duration (days) 1.1 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 1.0 0.45
Artificial nutrition 5 (7.8) 1 (6.6) 4 (8.1) 1.0
Valproic acid treatment 2 (3.1) 0 2 (4.0) 1.0
Alb (g/dL) 2.9 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 0.8 0.21
HbA1c (%) 6.4 ± 2.5 6.1 ± 2.3 6.4 ± 2.6 0.73
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, median (quartile), or absolute numbers and percentages (%) as appropriate
  2. Free carnitine
  3. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II
  4. §Sequential Organ Failure Assessment