Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Asymptomatic peripheral artery disease and mortality in patients on hemodialysis

Characteristics All patients
(n = 310)
Non-PAD
(n = 223)
PAD
(n = 87)
P,* non-PAD vs. PAD Asymptomatic PAD
(n = 58)
Symptomatic PAD
(n = 29)
P, asymptomatic vs. symptomatic PAD
Age, years 66.0 (61.0, 74) 65.0 (60.0, 73.0) 69.0 (64.0, 75.5) 0.017 70.0 (65.0, 77.5) 66.0 (63.0, 73.0) 0.174
Male, % 183 (59.0%) 134 (60.1%) 49 (56.3%) 0.607 36 (62.1%) 13 (44.8%) 0.170
Body mass index, kg/m2 20.7 (18.7, 23.0) 20.4 (18.7, 23.0) 21.0 (18.8, 22.8) 0.720 20.9 (18.4, 22.8) 21.3 (19.4, 22.8) 0.402
Time on hemodialysis, years 5 (1, 13) 5 (1, 14) 5 (2, 11) 0.675 4. (1, 8) 10 (4, 15) 0.019
Cause of ESRD, %     < 0.001    0.448
 Glomerulonephritis 95 (30.6%) 78 (35.0%) 17 (19.5%)   12 (20.7%) 5 (17.2%)  
 Diabetic nephropathy 107 (34.5%) 58 (26.0%) 49 (56.3%)   29 (50.0%) 20 (69.0%)  
 Hypertension 28 (9.0%) 21 (9.4%) 7 (8.0%)   6 (10.3%) 1 (3.4%)  
 Cystic disease 13 (4.2%) 11 (4.9%) 2 (2.3%)   1 (1.7%) 1 (3.4%)  
 Other 43 (13.9%) 34 (15.2%) 9 (10.3%)   8 (13.8%) 1 (3.4%)  
 Unknown 24 (7.7%) 21 (9.4%) 3 (3.4%)   2 (3.4%) 1 (3.4%)  
Comorbid conditions        
 Diabetes, % 126 (40.6%) 76 (34.1%) 50 (57.5%) 0.001 30 (51.7%) 20 (69.0%) 0.260
 Coronary artery disease, % 51 (16.5%) 24 (10.8%) 27 (31.0%) < 0.001 15 (25.9%) 12 (41.4%) 0.150
 Cerebrovascular disease, % 53 (17.1%) 32 (14.3%) 21 (24.1%) 0.045 15 (25.9%) 6 (20.7%) 0.791
 Spinal stenosis, % 38 (12.3%) 17 (7.6%) 21 (24.1%) < 0.001 10 (17.2%) 11 (37.9%) 0.061
Medication        
 ACEI, % 23 (7.4%) 19 (8.5%) 4 (4.6%) 0.335 3 (5.2%) 1 (3.4%) 1.000
 ARB, % 138 (44.5%) 104 (46.6%) 34 (39.1%) 0.254 27 (46.6%) 7 (24.1%) 0.062
 CCB, % 136 (43.9%) 100 (42.9%) 36 (41.4%) 0.612 28 (48.3%) 8 (27.6%) 0.071
 Beta-blockerv, % 85 (27.4%) 51 (22.9%) 34 (39.1%) 0.007 21 (36.2%) 13 (44.8%) 0.489
 Lipid-lowering agent, % 50 (16.1%) 37 (16.6%) 13 (14.9%) 0.864 7 (12.1%) 6 (20.7%) 0.344
 Antiplatelet agent, % 138 (44.5%) 81 (36.3%) 57 (65.5%) < 0.001 36 (62.1%) 21 (72.4%) 0.473
 Anticoagulant agent, % 13 (4.2%) 4 (1.8%) 9 (10.7%) 0.002 5 (8.6%) 4 (13.8%) 0.474
Smoking status (ever), % 182 (58.7%) 121 (54.3%) 61 (70.1%) 0.014 41 (70.7%) 20 (69.0%) 1.000
Systolic BP, mmHg 136.8 ± 25.3 136.8 ± 24.2 137 ± 27.9 0.930 137.9 ± 28.5 135.4 ± 27.1 0.303
Diastolic BP, mmHg 75.4 ± 13.5 77.2 ± 12.6 71.1 ± 14.6 0.001 72.4 ± 15.3 68.1 ± 12.7 0.162
Pulse pressure, mmHg 61.0 (49.0, 73.3) 58.0 (48.0, 71.0) 64.0 (53.0, 78.8) 0.006 63.0 (52.0, 78.0) 65.0 (56.0, 81.0) 0.459
Pulse rate 71.0 (64.5, 80.0) 70.0 (65.0, 80.8) 73.0 (64.0, 79.0) 0.708 72.0 (63.8, 78.3) 75.0 (66.0, 79.0) 0.447
Ankle–brachial index 1.12 (0.96, 1.19) 1.16 (1.10, 1.22) 0.82 (0.68, 0.92) < 0.001 0.87 (0.79, 0.94) 0.73 (0.59, 0.82) < 0.001
Toe–brachial index 0.75 ± 0.22 0.79 ± 0.20 0.58 ± 0.21 < 0.001 0.57 ± 0.16 0.66 ± 0.42 0.312
Creatinine, mEq/L 10.1 ± 2.6 10.4 ± 2.7 9.4 ± 2.4 0.002 9.2 ± 2.7 9.9 ± 1.6 0.214
Calcium, mg/dL 8.7 (8.4, 9.1) 8.8 (8.4, 9.1) 8.7 (8.4, 9.1) 0.342 8.7 (8.4, 9.0) 8.7 (8.4, 9.1) 0.787
Phosphorus, mg/dL 5.1 ± 1 5.1 ± 1 5 ± 1.1 0.809 5.1 ± 1.1 4.9 ± 1.1 0.593
Hemoglobin, g/dL 11.1 (10.5, 11.7) 11.1 (10.6, 11.7) 10.9 (10.5, 11.9) 0.702 10.9 (10.4, 11.9) 11.0 (10.5, 11.8) 0.665
Hematocrit, % 33.0 (31.3, 34.9) 33.0 (31.3, 34.8) 33.0 (31.2, 35.0) 0.942 33.0 (31.2, 35.1) 32.9 (31.1, 34.8) 0.928
Albumin, g/dL 3.7 (3.5, 3.9) 3.8 (3.5, 4.0) 3.7 (3.5, 3.9) 0.036 3.7 (3.5, 3.8) 3.7 (3.6, 3.9) 0.485
HDL-C, mg/dL 41.0 (32.0, 52.8) 43.0 (33.5, 55.0) 37.0 (30.0, 48.0) < 0.001 37.0 (30.0, 45.8) 36.0 (30.0, 50.0) 0.939
LDL-C, mg/dL 86.0 (67.0, 105.0) 86.0 (66.50, 104.0) 87.0 (68.5, 107.0) 0.319 88.0 (71.0, 113.5) 86.0 (65.0, 100.0) 0.317
Triglycerides, mg/dL 111.5 (80.3, 173.8) 106.0 (75.5, 156.0) 126.0 (83.5, 189.0) 0.045 122.0 (82.3, 181.0) 132.0 (111.0, 211.0) 0.129
GNRI 94.0 (89.5, 98.3) 93.8 (90.1, 98.5) 95.1 (88.9, 97.6) 0.340 95.0 (87.1, 97.3) 95.3 (90.5, 98.3) 0.276
  1. Values are expressed as means ± SD, n (%), or median (25th and 75th percentiles)
  2. ESRD end-stage renal disease, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, BP blood pressure, CCB calcium channel blocker, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GNRI geriatric nutritional risk index, PAD peripheral artery disease
  3. *Comparison between PAD and non-PAD groups (with t, Mann-Whitney U, or χ2 tests)
  4. †Comparison between symptomatic PAD and asymptomatic PAD groups (with t, Mann-Whitney U, or χ2 tests)