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Table 3 Association of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with self-efficacy score in haemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease

From: Dialysis-related factors affecting self-efficacy and quality of life in patients on haemodialysis: a cross-sectional study from Palestine

Variable Frequency (%) N (283) Median (Q1–Q3) P valuea
Age category (years)
 < 30 36(12.7) 46(36–52.75) <0.001b
 30–60  173(61.1) 40(33–47.5)
 > 60 74(26.1) 33(26–41.25)
Gender
 Male  175(61.8) 38(32–47) 0.958c
 Female  108(38.2) 40(31–48.75)
BMIa
 Underweight  16(5.7) 37(31–48.5) 0.206b
 Normal  107(37.8) 41(33–50)
 Overweight  92(32.5) 39(29–46)
 Obese  68(24) 37(31–45)
Education
 No formal education  20(7.1) 34.5(28–48) 0.014 b
 Elementary school (primary)   63(22.3) 35(27–43)
 High school (secondary school)  74(26.1) 39.5(31–49)
 Graduated (university and above) 126(44.5) 41(34–48.25)
Household income (month)d
 High (more than 5000 NIS) 16(5.7) 43(34–50.5) 0.005 b
 Moderate (2000–5000 NIS) 123(43.5) 42(34–49)
 Low (less than 2000 NIS) 144(50.9) 37(29.25–45)
Residency
 City and refugee camps  115(40.6) 39(31–47) 0.995c
 Village  168(59.4) 39(31–47.75)
Living status
 Alone  16(5.7) 45(38–54.25) 0.031 c
 With family  267(94.3) 39(31–47)
Marital status
 Single, divorced, widowed  73(25.8) 40(31.5–49) 0.438c
 Married  210(74.2) 38.5(31–47)
Occupation
 Employed  57(20.1) 45(37–50) <0.001c
 Unemployed  226(79.9) 38(30–46)
Dialysis vintage (months)
 < 48 205(72.4) 39(31–47) 0.905 c
  ≥ 48 78(27.6) 38.5(32.75–47)
Dialysis per week
 ≤ 2  29(10.2) 40(27.5–48.5) 0.908 b
 3  249(88.0) 39(31–47)
 ≥ 4  5(1.8) 37(19–48)
Dialysis session duration (hours)
 ≤ 3 137(48.4) 38(32–46) 0.482c
 > 3 146(51.6) 40(30–48.25)
Transplantation history
 Yes  35(12.4) 39(34–52) 0.108c
 No  248(87.6) 39(31–47)
Total chronic co-morbid diseases
 None  47(16.6) 44(37–51) <0.001b
 1  74(26.1) 42(33.75–50)
 2  68(24.0) 39.5(31–48.75)
 ≥ 3  94(33.2) 35(28–41)
Chronic medications
 < 4 61(21.6) 42(34–51) 0.004 c
 ≥ 4  222(75.4) 38(30–46)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, NIS New Israeli Shekel
  2. aThe p values are italicized where they are less than the significance level cut-off of 0.05
  3. bStatistical significance of differences calculated using the Kruskal–Wallis test
  4. cStatistical significance of differences calculated using the Mann–Whitney U test
  5. d1 Israeli New Shekel equals 0.29 US Dollar