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Table 4 Association of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with health-related quality of life in haemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease

From: Dialysis-related factors affecting self-efficacy and quality of life in patients on haemodialysis: a cross-sectional study from Palestine

Variable Frequency (%) N (283) Median (Q1–Q2) P valuea
Age category (years)
 < 30 36(12.7) 0.74(0.43–0.84) <0.001b
 30–60  173(61.1) 0.55(0.25–0.74)
 > 60 74(26.1) 0.31(0.06–0.59)
Gender
 Male  175(61.8) 0.52(0.19–0.73) 0.965c
 Female  108(38.2) 0.55(0.25–0.74)
BMIa
 Underweight  16(5.7) 0.33(−0.03–0.76) 0.070b
 Normal  107(37.8) 0.59(0.26–0.78)
 Overweight  92(32.5) 0.54(0.29–0.73)
 Obese  68(24) 0.41(0.12–0.70)
Education
 No formal education  20(7.1) 0.28(− 0.05–0.63) <0.001b
 Elementary school (primary)   63(22.3) 0.36(0.08–0.62)
 High school (secondary school)   74(26.1) 0.48(0.16–0.74)
 Graduated (university and above) 126(44.5) 0.67(0.39–0.80)
Household income (month)d
 High (more than 5000 NIS) 16(5.7) 0.67(0.56–0.87) 0.001 b
 Moderate (2000–5000 NIS) 123(43.5) 0.66(0.29–0.77)
 Low (less than 2000 NIS) 144(50.9) 0.44(0.13–0.68)
Residency
 City and refugee camps  115(40.6) 0.55(0.21–0.77) 0.566c
 Village  168(59.4) 0.52(0.22–0.71)
Living status
 Alone  16(5.7) 0.73(0.53–0.87) 0.007 c
 With family  267(94.3) 0.50(0.19–0.73)
Marital status
 Single, divorced, widowed  73(25.8) 0.60(0.25–0.74) 0.453c
 Married  210(74.2) 0.50(0.19–0.74)
Occupation
 Employed  57(20.1) 0.71(0.50–0.80) <0.001c
 Unemployed  226(79.9) 0.45(0.17–0.71)
Dialysis vintage (months)
  < 48 205(72.4) 0.53(0.20–0.74) 0.741c
  ≥ 48 78(27.6) 0.48(0.28–0.73)
Dialysis per week
 ≤ 2  29(10.2) 0.40(0.06–0.74) 0.391b
 3  249(88.0) 0.54(0.24–0.74)
 ≥ 4  5(1.8) 0.43(0.01–0.73)
Dialysis session duration (hours)
 ≤ 3 137(48.4) 0.45(0.15–0.69) 0.012 c
 > 3 146(51.6) 0.61(0.27–0.77)
Transplantation history
 Yes  35(12.4) 0.71(0.48–0.80) 0.001 c
 No  248(87.6) 0.48(0.19–0.71)
Total chronic co-morbid diseases
 None  47(16.6) 0.71(0.53–0.84) <0.001b
 1  74(26.1) 0.69(0.34–0.84)
 2  68(24.0) 0.45(0.21–0.70)
 ≥ 3  94(33.2) 0.29(0.06–0.55)
Chronic medications
 < 4 61(21.6) 0.70(0.29–0.78) 0.007 c
 ≥ 4  222(75.4) 0.48(0.19–0.71)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, NIS New Israeli Shekel
  2. aThe p values are italicized where they are less than the significance level cut-off of 0.05
  3. bStatistical significance of differences calculated using the Kruskal–Wallis test
  4. cStatistical significance of differences calculated using the Mann–Whitney U test
  5. d1 Israeli New Shekel equals 0.29 US Dollar