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Table 1 Patient baseline characteristics separated by experimental groups

From: Effects of electrical stimulation on muscle power and biochemical markers during hemodialysis in elderly patients: a pilot randomized clinical trial

Parameter ES (n = 10) EX (n = 10) SED (n = 10) p value*
Age (years) 68.6 ± 1.4 72.1 ± 0.7 69.9 ± 0.9 0.78
Male/female 7/3 8/2 8/2 0.85
Duration of HD (months) 126.0 ± 8.4 111.6 ± 4.8 123.6 ± 3.6 0.10
BMI (kg/m2) 22.0 ± 0.9 22.0 ± 0.6 22.0 ± 0.7 0.99
Diabetic nephropathy 60.0% 70% 60% 0.89
  1. Categorical data are presented as absolute number and percentage and continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard error
  2. ES electrical stimulation of the leg extensors was applied to the patients during hemodialysis, EX the exercise-training group performed ergometer-training exercise during hemodialysis, SED the control group consisted of patients without exercise, HD hemodialysis, BMI body mass index
  3. *Group comparisons were analyzed via the Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way analysis of variance for continuous parameters