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Table 2 Changes in physical parameters in the ES (n = 10), EX (n = 10), and SED (n = 10) groups

From: Effects of electrical stimulation on muscle power and biochemical markers during hemodialysis in elderly patients: a pilot randomized clinical trial

Parameter Mean ± SE Time* (p value) Repeated measures ANOVA (p value)
Baseline 12 weeks
Hand grip (kg)
 ES 17.0 ± 0.7 18.8 ± 0.8 0.14 Group 0.01
 EX 19.7 ± 0.7 21.9 ± 0.8 0.02 Time 0.04
 SED 27.9 ± 0.7 26.1 ± 0.8 0.22 Interaction 0.41
Group (p value) 0.01 0.44  
MPQ (kgf)
 ES 13.1 ± 0.1 15.7 ± 1.6 0.01 Group 0.53
 EX 9.2 ± 0.3 10.0 ± 0.4 0.24 Time 0.04
 SED 9.3 ± 0.2 9.1 ± 0.2 0.43 Interaction 0.78
Group (p value) 0.30 0.01  
WBI (kgf/kg)
 ES 0.2 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.04 Group 0.69
 EX 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.1 0.11 Time 0.02
 SED 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.0 0.33 Interaction 0.73
Group (p value) 0.32 0.51  
  1. ES electrical stimulation, EX exercise, SED control, SE standard error, ANOVA analysis of variance, MPQ muscular power of the quadriceps, WBI weight bearing index
  2. *Time-related differences within each group analyzed via post hoc test was completed for variables with a significant difference depending on their parameters (Tukey-Kramer or Scheffé procedures). Greenhouse-Geisser correction was applied as Mauchly’s test of sphericity was not met pairwise
  3. †Main effects (time and group) and interaction effect (time by group) analyzed via two-way repeated measures ANOVA
  4. ‡Group comparisons within each time point analyzed via post hoc test