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Table 1 Review of the literature on vertebral AVF caused by jugular catheter insertion

From: A case of vertebral arteriovenous fistula in a patient undergoing maintenance hemodialysis

Case no. Sex Age (years) Clinical presentation Cause Side Level Treatment Clinical outcome Reference no.
1 F 72 Murmur Jugular dialysis catheter R C5/6 coil Asymptomatic Present
2 M 53 Symptom-free Jugular catheter R C5/6 balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 3
3 M 34 Tinnitus Jugular catheter L C5/6 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 3
4 M 71 Symptom-free Jugular catheter L C5 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 3
5 M 51 Symptom-free Jugular catheter R C6 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 3
6 F 66 Vertigo Jugular catheter R C6 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 3
7 F 57 Symptom-free Jugular catheter L C6 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 3
8 M 68 Neurological Jugular catheter L C6 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 3
9 F 35 Tinnitus Jugular catheter R C5 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 2
10 M 37 Symptom-free Jugular catheter R C5/6 Abstention Not occluded 2
11 M 38 Symptom-free Jugular catheter R C3 Surgical repair Asymptomatic 2
12 M 45 Vertebral ischemia Jugular catheter R C5/6 Surgical repair/balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 2
13 M 47 Tinnitus Jugular catheter R C6 Abstention Not occluded 2
14 M 49 Symptom-free Jugular catheter R C6 Abstention Not occluded 2
15 M 51 Tinnitus Jugular catheter R C6 Surgical repair/balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 2
16 M 53 Symptom-free Jugular catheter R C5/6 Surgical repair/balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 2
17 M 55 Symptom-free Jugular catheter R C5/6 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 2
18 F 56 Symptom-free Jugular catheter R C3 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 2
19 F 57 Symptom-free Jugular catheter L C5/6 Abstention Asymptomatic 2
20 F 57 Symptom-free Jugular catheter L C6 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 2
21 F 61 Tinnitus Jugular catheter R C5/6 Surgical repair/balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 2
22 M 61 Tinnitus Jugular catheter R C6 Surgical repair Asymptomatic 2
23 F 66 Vertebral ischemia Jugular catheter R C6 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 2
24 M 70 Neurological Jugular catheter R C5/6 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 2
25 M 71 Symptom-free Jugular catheter L C4/5 Balloon occlusion Not occluded 2
26 F 77 Symptom-free Jugular catheter R C6 Surgical repair Asymptomatic 2
27 M 66 Murmur Swan-Ganz’s catheter R   Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 8
28 F 11 Radiculopathy Jugular catheter R C2–5 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 12
29 F 69 Murmur Jugular catheter R Unknown Surgical repair Asymptomatic 13
30 M 72 Blood gas analysis consistent
with arterial blood
Jugular dialysis catheter L C5 Balloon occlusion Asymptomatic 14
31 M 57 Murmur Jugular catheter R Unknown Surgical repair Asymptomatic 23
32 F 42 Dizziness, nausea, headache Jugular catheter R Unknown Surgical repair Asymptomatic 24