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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the patients

From: Carnitine deficiency is associated with decreased exercise activity in hemodialysis patients

No. of patients 37
Age (years) 55.9 ± 13.4
Sex (no.) (male/female) 24/13
HD duration (months) 153 ± 67
BMI (kg/m2) 22.5 ± 4.1
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 11.7 ± 1.5
Serum albumin (g/dl) 3.59 ± 0.24
AST (U/l) 13.6 ± 7.6
ALT (U/l) 11.9 ± 7.6
BUN (mg/dl) 60.4 ± 14.2
Serum Cr (mg/dl) 12.3 ± 2.3
Uric acid (mg/dl) 7.4 ± 1.5
Corrected Ca (mg/dl) 8.7 ± 0.6
Phosphate (mg/dl) 5.1 ± 1.3
Total chol (mg/dl) 155.0 ± 29.9
HDL-chol (mg/dl) 46.5 ± 13.5
LDL-chol (mg/dl) 84.5 ± 21.2
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 123.6 ± 94.3
CRP (mg/dl) 0.18 ± 0.29
Whole-PTH (pg/ml) 131.3 ± 93.9
NT-pro BNP (pg/ml) 4794 ± 6125
Kt/V 1.74 ± 0.35
Free carnitine (μmol/l) 24.0 ± 7.3
Total carnitine (μmol/l) 40.0 ± 11.0
Acyl carnitine (μmol/l) 16.2 ± 4.9
Primary cause of ESRD (n)
 Diabetic nephropathy 10 (27%)
 Chronic glomerulonephritis 10 (27%)
 Lupus nephritis 3 (9%)
 Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 2 (5%)
 Hypertensive nephrosclerosis 2 (5%)
 Others 10 (27%)
Exercise examination
 TUG (s) 7.2 ± 1.8
 Knee extension strength (N/m) 27.2 ± 9.7
 Functional reach test (cm) 35.8 ± 6.7
 10 m walk test (m/sec) 8.2 ± 1.5
 Thigh circumference 10 cm (cm) 39.8 ± 3.7
 Calf circumference (cm) 33.3 ± 3.7
  1. Abbreviations: HD hemodialysis, BMI body mass index, AST aspartate transaminase, ALT alanine amino transferase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, Cr creatinine, Ca calcium, Total chol total cholesterol, HDL-chol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-chol low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglyceride, CRP C-reactive protein, Whole PTH whole parathyroid hormone, NT-pro BNP N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, ESRD end-stage renal disease, TUG time-up-and-go test