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Table 12 Insurance status and cost of HD (excluding the cost of erythropoietin-stimulating agents, prescription medications, etc.), dialyzer reuse, HD hours per session, and HD sessions per week and numbers of HD and CAPD patients in the five countries

From: Present status of renal replacement therapy in Asian countries as of 2016: Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Bhutan, and Indonesia

Country Insurance and cost of HD Reuse or single-use HD hours per session HD sessions per week No. of CAPD patients No. of HD patients
Cambodia 100% by patient (45–60 USD) Reuse (6 times) 4 1 to 3 (depends on patient) Not available 300–500 (estimated)
Laos 100% by patient (50–70 USD) Reuse (5 times) 4 1 to 3 (depends on patient) 3 Unknown
Bhutan 100% by government (30 USD) Reuse (3 times) 4 2 Not available 150
Mongolia 100% by insurance (50 USD) Single-use 4 3 9 485
Indonesia 90% by insurance (70 USD) Reuse (see Fig. 3) 4.5 2 1243 11,689