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Table 8 Monitoring and surveillance for VAF

From: Pharmaceutical prevention strategy for arteriovenous fistula and arteriovenous graft failure

Physical examination
Blood flow measurement (AVF: monthly, AVG: every 3 months)
Ultrasound examination of VA at regular intervals
Venous pressure measurement
Pre-emptive balloon angioplasty to prevent VAF
  1. VAF vascular access failure, AVF arteriovenous fistula, AVG arteriovenous graft, VA vascular access