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Fig. 1 | Renal Replacement Therapy

Fig. 1

From: A critical review of current progress in 3D kidney biomanufacturing: advances, challenges, and recommendations

Fig. 1

Schematic representation of cell-integrated and wearable artificial kidney devices. a Renal assist device (RAD), an extra corporeal circuit with in series connections. b Bioartificial Renal Epithelial Cell System (BRECS), an extracorporeal filtration unit with renal epithelial cells seeded onto porous discs. c Wearable artificial kidney (WAK), concept designed to be a wearable, portable device. d Wearable ultrafiltration (WUF), concept designed to be discrete and wearable under garments

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