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Fig. 2 | Renal Replacement Therapy

Fig. 2

From: A critical review of current progress in 3D kidney biomanufacturing: advances, challenges, and recommendations

Fig. 2

Schematics of current bioprinting methods. Microextrusion can be used to produce a continuous flow of biomaterial (bio-ink) through a nozzle. Air pressure (pneumatic driven), pistons, and screws can be used to provide a driving force for dispersion. Inkjet printers are driven using thermal or piezoelectric actuators to create bubbles or a shape change to create droplets. Stereolithography utilises and focuses light to photopolymerised materials to a desired pattern. Laser-assisted bioprinting deposits microdroplets of bio-ink onto a substrate by application of a pulsed laser source to an absorbing layer above a bio-ink layer

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