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Table 1 Critical Criteria for 3D printing

From: A critical review of current progress in 3D kidney biomanufacturing: advances, challenges, and recommendations

Criteria Specific parameters
Cell source Inclusion of multiple cell types
Scaffold Biocompatible
Mechanically biomimetic
Able to withstand fluid flow forces
Safe
Durable
Able to be handled and maintained in vitro and in vivo
Structure Multiscale
Hierarchical
Functional Perfusion, filtration, secretion, absorption, and drainage of urine
Maintenance of homeostasis
Control of functions:
Hemodynamic
Immunological
Endocrine
Manufacturing process High-resolution cell deposition
Controlled cell distribution
Inclusion of:
Vascularisation
Innervation