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Table 1 The definition of various phenotype

From: Sarcopenic obesity and its association with frailty and protein-energy wasting in hemodialysis patients: preliminary data from a single center in Japan

PhenotypeAssessmentDefinitionReference
SarcopeniaAWGS criteriaSarcopenia is defined as the presence of low muscle mass plus either low muscle strength or low physical performance
• Low muscle mass; skeletal muscle index < 7.0 kg/m2 in men, 5.7 kg/m2 in women
• Low muscle strength; handgrip strength < 26 kg in men, < 18 kg in women
[6]
Obesity% Body fatObesity is defined as an extensive percent body fat mass
Obesity  30% in men,  40% in women
[7]
Sarcopenic obesity Sarcopenic obesity is defined as the presence of both sarcopenia and obesity 
MalnutritionGLIM criteriaMalnutrition is defined as present if the patients met at least one criterion from phenotypic and etiologic component
• phenotypic component
- Non-volitional weight loss; 5% over 6months or 10% over 6months
- Low body mass index; < 18.5 kg/m2 if 70 years old, < 20 kg/m2 if  70 years old
- Reduced muscle mass; Skeletal muscle index < 7.0 kg/m2 in men, < 5.7 in female)
・etiologic component
- Reduced food intake or assimilation;  50% of energy requirements within 1 week
- Disease burden or inflammatory condition; acute injury or chronic disease-related
[8]
AnorexiaSNAQSNAQ score is the sum of each item score
Anorexia < 14 points
[9]
FrailtyKihon ChecklistKihon Checklist score is divided into three categories as follow;
• Robust 0-3 points
• Pre-frailty 4–7 points
• Frailty  8points
[10]
PEWISRNM criteriaPEW was defined as a PEW score  3point
• Serum albumin < 3.8 g/dl
• BMI < 23 kg/m2 or unintentional weight loss (> 5% over three month or > 10% over 6 months)
• sCr/BSA 380 μmol/L/m2
• nPNA < 0.8 g/kg/day
[11]
  1. AWGS Asia working group for sarcopenia, GLIM The Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition, SNAQ simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire, PEW protein energy wasting, ISRNM International society of renal nutrition and metabolism, BMI body mass index, sCr/BSA serum creatinine normalized by the body surface area, nPNA normalized protein nitrogen appearance