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Table 5 Examination of tap water in several sub-Saharan African countries

From: Can we still ignore renal replacement therapy in sub-Saharan Africa? All living beings are created equal

<15 TCU
Turbidity<1 NTU0.5
Iron (mg/L)
Mean 0.3
Manganese (mg/L)<0.432.4  0.074ND
Nitrate (mg/L)<501.40.0 0.40.031
Ammonium (mg/L)
Total dissolved solids (mg/L)
Median: 1000
Hardness (mg/L)
Sodium (mg/L)
Median: 200
 592.0  11.0
Fluoride (mg/L)1.5   0.40.5
E Coli (mg/L)0<1    
  1. GDWQ “WHO guidelines for Drinking-water Quality”, TCU true colour unit, NTU Nephlometric turbidity unit, E Coli Escherichia coli, ― WHO guideline was not set [13]