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Table 1 Kidney diseases that are identified in HIV-infected patients

From: A high likelihood of increase in end-stage renal disease among the Japanese HIV-infected population

DiseasesClinical characteristics
HIV-specific glomerular disease
 HIVANDetectable viral load, a high amount of proteinuria, albuminuria, RPGN
 HIVICProteinuria and/or hematuria, variable manifestation including AKI
 TMAAKI, proteinuria, hematuria with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia
HIV-non-specific glomerular disease
 HCV-related glomerulonephritisProteinuria and/or hematuria, nephritic syndrome, a decrease in serum complements
 Diabetic nephropathyProteinuria (microalbuminuria to nephrotic syndrome), a decrease in GFR
 Glomerular sclerosisOlder patients, hypertension, no or low amount of proteinuria, coexistence of atherosclerotic diseases
 Membranous glomerulopathyNephrotic syndrome; idiopathic and secondary causes associated with HBV or cancers
 Minimal change diseaseNephrotic syndrome, use of NSAIDs
 IgA nephropathyHematuria and/or proteinuria with or without renal failure
 Post-infectious glomerulonephritisHematuria and/or proteinuria with or without renal failure
ART-associated tubular injury
 Acute tubular necrosisUse of TDF
 Cristal nephropathyUse of IDV and ATV
 Acute or chronic interstitial nephritisUse of ATV
  1. HIVAN HIV-associated nephropathy, HIVIC HIV-associated immune complex kidney disease, TMA thrombotic microangiopathy, HCV hepatitis C virus, HBV hepatitis B virus, AKI acute kidney injury, GFR glomerular filtration rate, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ART antiretroviral therapy, TDF tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, IDV indinavir, ATV atazanavir