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Table 3 Prevalence of constipation in patients with nondialysis-CKD

From: Constipation in chronic kidney disease: it is time to reconsider

Authors (Year), countryNo. of subjectsAge (year)Renal functionDefinition of constipation (Prevalence [%])
Yasuda et al. (2002), Japan [29]10559.1 ± 11.9UnknownMeeting 1 and 2, or 3 (59.9)
1. Stool consistency: moderate or severe
2. Straining: always or almost always
3. Bowel movements < 3 times/week
Ramos et al. (2019), Brazil [30]4359.0 ± 13.5eGFR 21.3 ± 7.9 mL/min/1.73m2Rome III criteria (34.9)
BSFS type 1 and 2 (32.6)
  1. Abbreviations: BSFS Bristol Stool Form Scale, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate