Skip to main content

Table 4 Prevalence of constipation in dialysis patients

From: Constipation in chronic kidney disease: it is time to reconsider

Authors (Year), countryNo. of subjectsAge (year)Dialysis durationDefinition of constipation (Prevalence [%])
Hammer et al. (1998), Austria [31]HD, 105UnknownUnknownStraining, hard stool, or bowel movements < 3 times/week (40.0)
Yasuda et al. (2002), Japan [29]HD, 268; PD, 204HD, 56.4 ± 11.7
PD, 50.0 ± 13.7
UnknownMeeting 1 and 2, or 3 (HD, 63.1; PD, 28.9)
1. Stool consistency: moderate or severe
2. Straining: always or almost always
3. Bowel movements < 3 times/week
Wu et al. (2004), Taiwan [15]HD, 56; PD, 63HD, 53.1 ± 10.6
PD, 50.3 ± 11.0
UnknownLaxative use (HD, 35.7; PD, 15.9)
Cano et al. (2007), United Kingdom [32]HD, 100; PD, 48UnknownUnknownMeeting at least 2 of the following symptoms (HD, 33.0; PD 27.1)
1. Bowel movements < 3 times/week
2. Hard or lumpy stool
3. Straining
4. Feeling of incomplete emptying
5. Sensation that the stool cannot be passed
6. Need of manual maneuvers
Bossola et al (2011), Italy [33]HD, 11064.6 ± 14.86.5 ± 6.3 yearsSelf-defined (27.3)
Hatakeyama et al (2013), Japan [27]HD, 11260.2 ± 10.811.6 ± 6.5 yearsLaxative use (27.7)
Zhang et al. (2013), China [34]HD, 478; PD, 127HD, 53.0 ± 14.2
PD, 45.2 ± 13.1
HD, 53.4 ± 14.9 months
PD, 49.6 ± 10.4 months
Rome III criteria (HD, 71.7; PD, 14.2)
Dong et al. (2014), China [35]HD, 182; PD, 112HD, 58.7 ± 14.4
PD, 59.7 ± 14.2
HD, 55.5 ± 38.5 months
PD, 48.9 ± 31.0 months
Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (HD, 36.3; PD, 17.9)
Ramos et al. (2015), Brazil [36]HD, 290UnknownUnknownRome III criteria (32.8)
Ikee et al. (2016), Japan [28]HD, 13667 ± 12103 ± 103 monthsLaxative use (66.2)
  1. HD hemodialysis, PD peritoneal dialysis