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Table 4 Prevalence of constipation in dialysis patients

From: Constipation in chronic kidney disease: it is time to reconsider

Authors (Year), country No. of subjects Age (year) Dialysis duration Definition of constipation (Prevalence [%])
Hammer et al. (1998), Austria [31] HD, 105 Unknown Unknown Straining, hard stool, or bowel movements < 3 times/week (40.0)
Yasuda et al. (2002), Japan [29] HD, 268; PD, 204 HD, 56.4 ± 11.7
PD, 50.0 ± 13.7
Unknown Meeting 1 and 2, or 3 (HD, 63.1; PD, 28.9)
1. Stool consistency: moderate or severe
2. Straining: always or almost always
3. Bowel movements < 3 times/week
Wu et al. (2004), Taiwan [15] HD, 56; PD, 63 HD, 53.1 ± 10.6
PD, 50.3 ± 11.0
Unknown Laxative use (HD, 35.7; PD, 15.9)
Cano et al. (2007), United Kingdom [32] HD, 100; PD, 48 Unknown Unknown Meeting at least 2 of the following symptoms (HD, 33.0; PD 27.1)
1. Bowel movements < 3 times/week
2. Hard or lumpy stool
3. Straining
4. Feeling of incomplete emptying
5. Sensation that the stool cannot be passed
6. Need of manual maneuvers
Bossola et al (2011), Italy [33] HD, 110 64.6 ± 14.8 6.5 ± 6.3 years Self-defined (27.3)
Hatakeyama et al (2013), Japan [27] HD, 112 60.2 ± 10.8 11.6 ± 6.5 years Laxative use (27.7)
Zhang et al. (2013), China [34] HD, 478; PD, 127 HD, 53.0 ± 14.2
PD, 45.2 ± 13.1
HD, 53.4 ± 14.9 months
PD, 49.6 ± 10.4 months
Rome III criteria (HD, 71.7; PD, 14.2)
Dong et al. (2014), China [35] HD, 182; PD, 112 HD, 58.7 ± 14.4
PD, 59.7 ± 14.2
HD, 55.5 ± 38.5 months
PD, 48.9 ± 31.0 months
Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (HD, 36.3; PD, 17.9)
Ramos et al. (2015), Brazil [36] HD, 290 Unknown Unknown Rome III criteria (32.8)
Ikee et al. (2016), Japan [28] HD, 136 67 ± 12 103 ± 103 months Laxative use (66.2)
  1. HD hemodialysis, PD peritoneal dialysis