Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics, physical function, and ADL difficulty of study participants

From: Comparison of difficulty with activities of daily living in elderly adults undergoing hemodialysis and community-dwelling individuals: a cross-sectional study

 Hemodialysis group
(n = 136)
Control group
(n = 40)
P value
Age (years)73.8 ± 6.775.4 ± 5.80.16
 65 to 7478 (57.4)17 (42.5) 
 ≥ 7558 (42.6)23 (57.5) 
Men72 (52.3)20 (50.0)0.74
Height (m)1.59 ± 0.091.58 ± 0.090.30
Body weight (kg)54.6 ± 11.055.5 ± 8.00.63
Body mass index (kg/m2)21.4 ± 3.422.3 ± 2.30.11
 < 18.532 (23.5)2 (5.0) 
 18.5 to 24.985 (62.5)35 (87.5) 
 ≥ 25.019 (14.0)3 (7.5) 
Duration of hemodialysis (years)7.5 (3.0, 13.5)
Primary kidney disease 
 Glomerulonephritis39 (28.7)  
 Diabetes47 (34.6)  
 Hypertension9 (6.6)  
 Other23 (16.9)  
 Unknown18 (13.2)  
Comorbidity index score (points)7 (5, 9)
Albumin (g/dL)3.7 ± 0.3
Hemoglobin (g/dL)10.8 ± 0.9
Living alone34 (25.0)5 (12.5)0.08
SARC-F score (points)3 (1, 5)1 (0, 2)< 0.001
 ≥ 458 (42.6)1 (2.5) 
Grip strength (kg)21.6 ± 7.126.7 ± 6.6< 0.001
 Male < 26, female < 1882 (60.3)7 (17.5) 
Five-times sit-to-stand test time (s) *11.2 ± 4.66.5 ± 2.6< 0.001
Usual gait speed (m/s)1.04 ± 0.311.59 ± 0.27< 0.001
 < 0.829 (21.3)0 (0.0) 
 ≤ 1.059 (43.4)0 (0.0) 
Maximum gait speed (m/s)1.35 ± 0.432.00 ± 0.39< 0.001
 Male ≤ 1.50, female ≤ 1.3575 (55.1)1 (2.5) 
SPPB score (points)11 (8, 12)12 (12, 12)< 0.001
 ≤ 946 (33.8)0 (0.0) 
U/L ADL difficulty score (points)40 (31, 49)52 (45, 54)< 0.001
 Light work22 (18, 27)28 (22, 30)< 0.001
 Holding activities18 (14, 22)24 (21, 25)< 0.001
L/L ADL difficulty score (points)41 (30, 50)56 (51, 58)< 0.001
 Basic ADL11 (9, 13)14 (12, 15)< 0.001
 Ambulation18 (12, 24)25 (21, 25)< 0.001
 Walking up or down stairs13 (10, 16)19 (16, 20)< 0.001
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, number (percentage), or median (interquartile range)
  2. *Twelve hemodialysis patients could not complete the five-times sit-to-stand test.
  3. ADL: activities of daily living, L/L: lower limb, SPPB: Short physical performance battery, U/L: upper limb