Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of all study participants with frailty classification and frailty status. Values of categorical variables are given as number (percentage). Values for continuous variables are given as median (interquartile range)

From: Evaluation of frailty status and prognosis in patients aged over 75 years with chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Characteristic Total (N = 310) Robust (N = 107) Pre-Frail (N = 100) Frail (N = 103) P-value
Age (year) 83.1 (80.6-86.7) 82.6 (80.6 ― 85.3) 82.9 (80.4 ― 87.1) 83.8 (81.2 ― 87.7) 0.124
Sex (Female) 144 (45.4) 38 (32.3) 55 (55.1) 51 (49.0) 0.027*
Body mass index (kg/m2) 19.7 (17.5-22.0) 19.6 (18.2 ― 22.0) 19.6 (17.4 ― 21.9) 18.5 (15.9 ― 21.6) 0.028*
Cardio-Thoracic Ratio (%) 54.5 (50.0-60.8) 55 (50 ― 61) 54.4 (51 ― 60) 55 (50 61) 0.828
Charlson Comorbidity index 4 (3-5) 4.0 (3.0 ― 5.0) 4.0 (3.0 ― 5.0) 4.0 (3.0 ― 6.0) 0.013*
Cardiovascular disease 57 (18.4) 18 (16.8) 23 (23.0) 16 (15.5) 0.388
Congestive heart failure 80 (25.8) 28 (26.2) 26 (26.0) 26 (25.2) 0.924
Peripheral vascular disease 12 (3.9) 5 (4.7) 4 (4.0) 3 (2.9) 0.791
Dementia 89 (28.7) 12 (11.2) 26 (26.0) 51 (49.5) <0.001**
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 15 (4.8) 4 (3.7) 4 (4.0) 7 (6.8) 0.519
Collagen disease 16 (5.2) 7 (6.5) 5 (5.0) 4 (3.9) 0.680
Peptic ucler 5 (1.6) 1 (0.9) 1 (1.0) 3 (2.9) 0.436
Mild Liver dysfunction 10 (3.2) 4 (3.7) 3 (3.0) 3 (2.9) 0.917
Diabetes mellitus without end-organ damage 22 (7.1) 2 (1.9) 11 (11.0) 9 (8.7) 0.599
Hemiplegia 46 (14.8) 11 (10.3) 13 (13.0) 22 (21.4) 0.149
Diabetes mellitus with end-organ damage 107 (34.5) 40 (37.4) 35 (35.0) 32 (31.1) 0.650
Malignant Tumor (no metastasis) 22 (7.1) 6 (5.6) 8 (8.0) 8 (7.8) 0.765
Moderate/Sever Liver dysfunction 6 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 4 (4.0) 2 (1.9) 0.122
Metastatic malignant tumor 4 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 3 (2.9) 0.178
SPICES Score 0 (0-3.0) 0.0 (0.0 ― 1.0) 1.0 (0.0 ― 1.5) 2.0 (1.0 ― 3.0) <0.001**
Sleep disorder 67 (21.6) 30 (28.0) 18 (18.0) 19 (18.4) 0.13
Problem with eating 92 (29.7) 9 (8.4) 26 (26.0) 57 (55.3) <0.001**
Incontinence 93 (30.0) 8 (7.5) 22 (22.0) 63 (61.2) <0.001**
Confusion 89 (28.7) 12 (11.2) 26 (26.0) 51 (49.5) <0.001**
Evidence of Falls 34 (11.0) 6 (5.6) 10 (10.0) 18 (17.5) 0.021*
Skin breakdown 18 (5.8) 1 (0.9) 2 (2.0) 15 (14.6) <0.001**
Etiology of chronic kidney disease
  Diabetes mellitus 101 (32.6) 37 (34.6) 33 (33.0) 31 (30.1) 0.452
  Glomeruonephritis 49 (15.8) 16 (15.0) 16 (16.0) 17 (16.5) 0.591
  Nephrosclerosis 38 (12.3) 13 (12.1) 13 (13.0) 12 (11.7) 0.206
  Other 16 (5.2) 6 (5.6) 6 (6.0) 4 (3.9) 0.353
  Unknown 107 (34.5) 35 (32.7) 33 (33.0) 39 (37.9) 0.225
Labodata
  Serum Albumin (g/dl) 2.9 (2.2-3.4) 3.1 (2.8―3.4) 2.9 (2.4―3.3) 2.6 (2.2―3.0) <0.001**
  Hemoglobin (g/dl) 9.0 (7.8-10.1) 8.8 (8.3―10.1) 8.9 (8.0―9.9) 8.8 (7.8―9.9) 0.452
  Serum Sodium (mEq/l) 137.6 (133-141) 138 (136―141) 138 (135―141) 138 (133―141) 0.591
 Serum Potassium (mEq/l) 4.5 (3.9-5.4) 4.3 (3.9―5.0) 4.3 (3.8―4.9) 4.6 (3.9―5.4) 0.206
 Serum Chloride (mEq/l) 105.8 (110-111) 107 (103―111) 106 (101―110) 106 (101―110) 0.24
 Blood Urea Nitrogen (mg/dl) 81.4 (54.0-111) 72.5 (57.4―88.6) 73.2 (54.0―93.6) 75.3 (60.8―111) 0.156
 Serum Creatinine (mg/dl) 5.3 (4.0 -6.6) 5.6 (4.2―7.2) 4.9 (4.0―6.2) 5.2 (4.3―7.4) 0.078
 Corrected Serum Calcium (mg/dl) 9.3 (8.9-9.9) 9.3 (8.8―9.5) 9.3 (8.9―9.6) 9.6 (9.2―9.9) <0.001**
 Serum Phosphorus (mg/dl) 5.1 (3.8-6.2) 4.7 (3.9―5.5) 4.6 (3.8―5.5) 5.2 (4.2―6.2) 0.012*
 Brain Natriuretic Peptide (pg/ml) 196 (72.2-570) 162.5 (76―405) 147 (63―458) 162.5 (76―405) 0.432
 Total Cholesterol (mg/dl) 161 (136-192) 167 (141―197) 159 (130―180) 160 (131―193) 0.161
 Total Lymphocyte Count (1000/μL) 0.98 (0.70-1.35) 0.99 (0.8―1.4) 1.01 (0.8―1.4) 0.93 (0.6―1.2) 0.083
 C-reactive protein (mg/dl) 0.7 (0.72-1.44) 0.16 (0.06―0.76) 0.78 (0.07―1.42) 1.12 (0.42―1.95) <0.001**
 CONUT score 6 (4.0-8.0) 5 (4―7) 6 (4―8) 7 (6―9) <0.001**
  1. * P value <0.05
  2. ** P value <0.001