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Table 6 Hematuria and proteinuria in COVID-19 patients

From: Development of acute kidney injury with massive granular casts and microscopic hematuria in patients with COVID-19: two case presentations with literature review

Study Hematuria (%) Definition of hematuria Proteinuria (%) Definition of proteinuria Timing of urinalysis
Xia et al. [27] 10 (27.8) a > 2+ by dipstick 5 (13.9) a > 2+ by dipstick At hospital presentation
Hirsch et al. [1] b 249 (40.9) RBCs >5/HPF 272 (42.1) c ≥ 2+ by dipstick c 24 h before or 48 h after AKI
Hong et al. [28] 18 (17.5) d ≥ 1+ by dipstick 19 (18.4) d ≥ 1+ by dipstick N/A
Na et al. [29] 10 (15.2) RBCs >3/HPF 9 (13.6) Trace or + by dipstick During hospitalization
Cheng et al. [2] 118 (26.7) e ≥ 1+ by dipstick 194 (43.9) e ≥ 1+ by dipstick N/A
Chen et al. [17] 84 (50.6) f N/A 100 (60.2) f N/A N/A
Taher et al. [30] 15 (20.5) ≥ 1+ by dipstick 38 (52.1) ≥ 1+ by dipstick N/A
Pei et al. [11] 139 (41.7) ≥ Trace by dipstick 219 (65.8) ≥ Trace by dipstick On the first morning after admission
Li et al. [4] 71 (48.3) g ≥ Trace by dipstick 88 (59.9) ≥ Trace by dipstick Upon admission
  1. RBCs Red blood cells, HPF High-power field, N/A Not available
  2. aOnly 36 patients were tested
  3. bOnly AKI patients were included
  4. cUp to 646 of 1993 AKI patients were tested
  5. dOnly 103 patients were tested
  6. eOnly 442 patients were tested
  7. fOnly 166 patients were tested
  8. gOnly 147 patients were tested