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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by ERI quartile

From: Hyporesponsiveness to long-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agent is related to the risk of cardiovascular disease and death in Japanese patients on chronic hemodialysis: observational cohort study

  All ERI quartiles P for trend
Q1 (< 2.73) Q2 (2.74–5.36) Q3 (5.37–11.30) Q4 (11.31 ≤)
N 127 32 31 32 32  
Age (years) 67 (59–74) 66.5 (51.3–71.0) 62.0 (55.0–67.0) 71.5 (66.3–80.8) 69.5 (63.3–75.8) < 0.001
Male gender (%) 55.1 65.6 61.3 43.8 50.0 0.271
Dialysis duration (y) 6.7 (2.8–12.3) 6.5 (3.7–12.0) 9.3 (3.7–13.3) 7.0 (3.0–12.8) 3.0 (1.8–10.3) 0.140
Smoking (history) (%) 44.1 43.8 54.8 37.5 40.6 0.537
History of cardiovascular disease (%) 19.7 15.6 12.9 31.3 18.8 0.266
Body mass index (kg/m2) 21.4 (19.0–23.7) 23.1 (21.0–25.9) 21.2 (19.9–23.1) 20.8 (19.1–23.1) 20.3 (17.7–22.6) 0.006
Diabetes (%) 44.9 43.8 41.9 50.0 43.8 0.923
Pre-dialysis SBP (mmHg) 150 (136–165) 147 (137–158) 153 (139–168) 154 (133–163) 156 (134–173) 0.414
Pre-dialysis DBP (mmHg) 80 (71–86) 83 (76–88) 80 (71–96) 74 (66–81) 78 (72–88) 0.102
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 10.6 (10.1–11.1) 11.0 (10.4–11.4) 11.0 (10.3–11.3) 10.3 (9.8–11.0) 10.3 (9.7–10.8) 0.002
Albumin (g/dL) 3.5 (3.2–3.7) 3.7 (3.4–3.8) 3.5 (3.2–3.7) 3.4 (3.1–3.7) 3.4 (3.1–3.5) 0.027
Calcium (mg/dL) 9.2 (8.9–9.6) 9.0 (8.7–9.5) 9.2 (8.8–9.7) 9.5 (9.1–9.7) 9.3 (8.9–9.6) 0.133
Phosphorus (mg/dL) 5.0 (4.2–5.8) 4.8 (4.2–5.6) 4.9 (3.8–5.7) 5.0 (4.1–5.8) 5.3 (4.7–6.0) 0.404
Intact PTH (pg/mL) 128 (81–198) 151 (95–238) 129 (97–169) 163 (72–222) 100 (65–159) 0.125
C-related protein (mg/dL) 0.20 (0.18–0.22) 0.20 (0.08–0.20) 0.20 (0.08–0.20) 0.20 (0.20–0.23) 0.20 (0.20–0.29) 0.164
Ferritin (ng/dL) 34 (19–71) 41 (25–67) 24 (18–41) 31 (15–83) 50 (24–85) 0.161
TSAT (%) 24.2 (18.3–29.4) 21.4 (15.3–30.4) 25.6 (19.5–29.4) 26.8 (18.4–30.0) 21.7 (17.7–29.6) 0.551
Kt/V 1.47 (1.31–1.73) 1.45 (1.25–1.72) 1.64 (1.27–1.74) 1.51 (1.42–1.80) 1.40 (1.31–1.72) 0.345
ESA type (%)
Darbepoetin alfa 91.3 100 100 96.8 68.8 < 0.001
Epoetin beta pegol 8.7 0 0 3.2 31.3 < 0.001
ESA dose (μg/week)
Darbepoetin alfa 15 (10–20) 5 (5–5) 10 (10–15) 20 (15–20) 40 (38–60) < 0.001
Epoetin beta pegol 75 (50–100) NA NA 25 (25–25) 75 (75–100) < 0.001
ERI 5.36 (2.73–11.31) 1.61 (1.36–2.21) 4.32 (3.45–4.81) 7.37 (6.11–9.43) 20.42 (14.76–24.45) < 0.001
ARB or ACEi (%) 62.2 59.4 64.5 62.5 62.5 0.980
  1. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range). P values were obtained by comparison across all four groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test and χ2 test, as appropriate. ERI erythropoietin resistance index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, PTH parathyroid hormone, TSAT transferrin saturation, ESA erythropoietin-stimulating agent, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, ACEi angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor