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Table 1 Implementation status of infection prevention measures at each dialysis facility, before and after the COVID-19 pandemic occurred

From: Infection prevention measures for patients undergoing hemodialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: a nationwide questionnaire survey

No. Questions Implementation rate p value
Before the pandemic occurred
N = 2227 (%)
After the pandemic occurred
N = 2227 (%)
 
1 Medical instruments for hemodialysis are sterilized or disposable for each patient. 2131 (95.7) 2096 (94.1) < 0.001
2 Staffs can perform hand hygiene before/after hemodialysis operations, using equipment/supplies in appropriate locations. 2161 (97.0) 2167 (97.3) 0.527
3 Disinfection, maintenance, and inspection of hemodialysis machines are managed according to the instruction manual. 2195 (98.6) 2176 (97.7) 0.003
4 An infection control committee, chaired by the facility manager or the person in charge of nosocomial infection control, has been established and is held regularly with staff from various fields. 1974 (88.6) 1998 (89.7) 0.010
5 Staffs with symptoms of infection such as fever and diarrhea are examined by a doctor whether they can work or not before entering the dialysis room. 1559 (70.0) 2092 (93.9) < 0.001
6 Priming of the hemodialysis circuit is done just before the treatment with sterile technique in accordance with the package insert. 2091 (93.9) 2090 (93.8) 0.898
7 Initiating and terminating operation are performed with two staffs in a way which does not contaminate with blood. 1306 (58.6) 1313 (59.0) 0.327
8 Staffs always perform careful hand hygiene before and after invasive procedures and wear unused disposable gloves. 2152 (96.6) 2162 (97.1) 0.218
9 Staffs who perform initiating and terminating operation are wearing masks. 1937 (87.0) 2186 (98.2) < 0.001
10 Staffs who perform initiating and terminating operation are wearing disposable, non-permeable gowns or plastic aprons. 1291 (58.0) 1472 (66.1) < 0.001
11 Staffs who perform initiating and terminating operation are wearing goggles or face shields. 1145 (51.4) 1648 (74.0) < 0.001
12 Items contaminated with blood are disposed of as infectious waste or cleaned and sterilized according to the manual. 2195 (98.6) 2177 (97.8) 0.045
13 Heparin and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are pre-filled syringe products, and other injectable drugs are prepared aseptically in a separate area. 1615 (72.5) 1609 (72.2) 0.343
14 Patients are checked for their temperature and symptoms to confirm that they do not have a suspected infection, before entering the dialysis room. 1199 (53.8) 2095 (94.1) < 0.001
15 Patients with suspected infection are observed before entering the room, and infection measures are modified according to their conditions. 1601 (71.9) 2141 (96.1) < 0.001
16 Linens are changed for each patient. 653 (29.3) 765 (34.4) < 0.001
17 Items that are frequently touched by patient’s and staff’s hands (e.g., doorknobs) are wiped or disinfected several times a day. 1165 (52.3) 2007 (90.1) < 0.001