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Table 1 Noncanonical HIF regulation in the kidney

From: Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors in chronic kidney disease

Cell type Regulators Principal changes
Tubular epithelial cell Indoxyl sulfate [78] HIF-1 transactivation activity ↓
  CEBPD [47] HIF-1α mRNA ↑
  TGF-β1/Smad3/mTORC1 [95, 96] HIF-1α protein ↑
EPO-producing cell IRP1 [50] HIF-2α protein ↓
Endothelial cell LPS/NF-κB [97] HIF-2α mRNA ↑
Mesangial cell TGF-β1/Smad3/mTORC1 [98, 99] HIF-1α protein ↑
  1. HIF hypoxia-inducible factor, CEBPD CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ, TGF-β1 transforming growth factor-β1, Smad3 mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3, mTORC1 mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, EPO erythropoietin, IRP1 iron regulatory protein 1, LPS lipopolysaccharide, NF-κB nuclear factor-κB