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Table 1 Requirements for a uremic toxin

From: Removal of uremic toxins by renal replacement therapies: a review of current progress and future perspectives

1. The toxin is a unique chemical entity.
2. Quantitative analysis of the toxin in biological fluids is possible
3. The levels of the toxin in biological fluids increase with deterioration of kidney function.
4. A positive relationship between toxin level in biological fluids and manifestations of uremic syndrome is present.
5. Administration of the toxin at concentration seen in patients with kidney disease shows toxic effects related to uremic syndrome both in vivo and in vitro.