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Table 2 Characteristics of protein-bound uremic toxins

From: Removal of uremic toxins by renal replacement therapies: a review of current progress and future perspectives

Uremic toxins Pre-dialysis concentrations (mg/dL) Protein binding (%) Reduction rate with hemodialysis (%)
Indoxyl sulfate 2.99 ± 0.18 97.7 ± 0.2 31.8 ± 1.4
Indoxyl glucuronide 0.25 ± 0.03 59.6 ± 1.5 79.6 ± 0.9
Indoleacetic acid 0.12 ± 0.01 94.1 ± 0.6 44.3 ± 1.5
P-Cresyl sulfate 3.71 ± 0.28 95.1 ± 0.6 29.1 ± 1.7
P-Cresyl glucuronide 0.58 ± 0.09 32.3 ± 2.6 80.7 ± 1.1
Phenyl sulfate 1.35 ± 0.15 90.7 ± 0.9 65.2 ± 1.4
Phenyl glucuronide 0.06 ± 0.01 76.1 ± 1.3 69.2 ± 8.6
Phenylacetic acid 0.05 ± 0.01 60.5 ± 2.4 35.0 ± 7.0
Phenylacethyl glutamine 4.15 ± 0.37 44.9 ± 2.1 75.7 ± 1.0
Hippuric acid 4.43 ± 0.53 48.3 ± 2.5 68.9 ± 1.6
4-Ethylphenyl sulfate 0.0242 ± 0.0044 99.3 ± 0.1 5.5 ± 2.5
3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid 2.11 ± 0.13 99.7 ± 0.1 −30.5 ± 3.1
  1. Serum samples were obtained from patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis whose Kt/V and protein-catabolic rate were 1.40 ± 0.03 and 0.97 ± 0.02 g/kg/day, respectively