Skip to main content

Table 1 Factors affecting insulin resistance

From: Cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease (CKD)—an importance of vascular calcification and microcirculatory impairment

1. Anemia
2. PTH
3. 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3
4. Protein/keto-acid analog
5. Guanidino substrates
6. Exercise
7. Acidemia
8. Dyslipidemia
9. Chronic inflammation (adipocytokine, adiponectin)
10. Aldosterone and angiotensin II
11. FGF-23
12. Gastrointestinal polypeptide (ghrelin)
13. Others (uremic toxin, p-cresyl sulfate)