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Table 1 Studies regarding nutritional interventions in hemodialysis patients with protein-energy wasting

From: Rehabilitation nutrition support for a hemodialysis patient with protein-energy wasting and sarcopenic dysphagia: a case report

Case number Author Reported year Reference Subjects Design Period Results and clinical nutrition significance
1 Fouque et al. 2008 [4] 86 HD patients Randomized controlled trial: ONS vs control groups 90 days ↑ DEI, DPI, SGA, QOL
2 Scott et al. 2009 [5] 88 HD patients Randomized controlled trial: ONS vs control groups 90 days ↑ albumin, QOL
3 Moretti et al. 2009 [6] 49 HD patients Randomized controlled trial: ONS vs control groups 1- year ↑ nPCR, albumin
4 Malgorzewia et al. 2011 [7] 55 HD patients: PEW (30) Control (25) Randomized controlled trial: ONS vs control groups 90 days ↑ albumin, prealbumin in 30 PEW patients
↓ CRP, levels in both group
5 Magnard J et al. 2013 [8] 50 HD patients Randomized controlled trial: exercise vs control group (energy intake 30–40 kcal/kg of ideal weight/day, and protein intake > 1.1 g/kg of ideal weight/day) 180 days ↑ walk function, albumin and prealbumin, body composition (LTI, FTI), muscle strength, postural stability, QOL (SF-36)
6 Ravel VA et al. 2013 [9] 98,489 HD patients Prospective cohort study: reference level (60 to < 70 g/d), low protein nitrogen appearance (PNA) levels 8-years ↑ risk of death
7 Rattanasompattikul M et al. 2013 [10] 84 HD patients Pilot-feasibility, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial: ONS、PTX、ONS + PTX、control groups 16 weeks ↑ albumin (ONS、PTX、ONS + PTX groups)
8 Pasian C et al. 2014 [11] 48 HD patients Means of a dietetic intervention 28 days ↑ prealbumin, physical autonomy, grip strength
9 Mpio I et al. 2015 [12] 49 HD patients Prospective study: optimization of protein and energy intake in the daily meals 1- year ↑ QOL
↓ mortality
10 Hristea D et al. 2016 [13] 21 HD patients Pilot randomized controlled trial: nutrition-exercise group vs Nutrition group 6 months ↑ physical function (6MWT, balance), QOL(SF-36)
No change albumin, prealbumin, CRP, BMI, lean- and fat-tissue index, or quadriceps force. Not to have the potential to reverse PEW.
11 Sohrabi Z et al. 2016 [14] 92 HD patients A randomized, controlled, nonblinded, parallel trial: vitamin E–fortified Whey beverage vs whey beverage vs vitamin E vs control 8 weeks Whey protein in the form of a new fermented whey beverage and vitamin E supplementation may improve SGA score and MIS in the short term.
12 Martin-Alemañy G et al. 2016 [15] 36 HD patients Randomized controlled trial: ONS+ resistance exercise (RE) vs control groups 90 days ↑ BW, BMI, AMC, TSF, fat mass percentage, grip strength, phase angle and albumin in both group
↓ prevalence of PEW
13 Jo IY et al. 2017 [16] 42 HD patients Intervention study: personalized nutritional counseling 1- year ↑ DPI, albumin, and cholesterol levels
↓ body cell mass, fat free mass
14 Hajira B et al. 2017 [17] 100 HD patients Intervention study: dietary counseling 60 days ↑ DEI, DPI, AC, TSF, cholesterol
15 Hosojima M et al. 2017 [18] 50 HD patients Randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot trial: endosperm protein vs soy and casein proteins 4 weeks ↑ nPCR
  1. Abbreviations: AC arm circumference, AMC midarm muscle circumference, BCM body cell mass, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, DEI dietary energy intake, DPI dietary protein intake, FFM fat free mass, HD hemodialysis, MIS malnutrition-inflammation score, nPCR normalized protein catabolic rate, ONS oral nutritional supplements, PEW protein-energy wasting, PTX pentoxifylline, QOL quality of life, SF-36 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, SGA subject global assessment, TSF triceps skinfold thickness, 6MWT 6-min walk test