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Table 1 Circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress

From: Oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease

Types Biomarkers of oxidative stress
Lipids • Malondialdehyde (MDA)
• Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)
• Lipid hydroperoxides
• Advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs)
• Cholesteryl ethers
• 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)
Arachidonic acid derivatives • F2-isoprostane
• Isolevuglandins
• Isofurans
Carbohydrates • Reactive aldehydes • Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs)
Amino acids • Cysteine
• Homocysteine
• Nitrotyrosine
• Chlorotyrosine
• Isoaspartate
• Carboxymethyl lysine
Proteins • Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs)
• Protein thiols oxidation
• Carbonyl formation
• Amine oxidation
Nucleic acids • 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) • 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG)