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Table 2 Summary of clinical studies on antioxidant therapies

From: Oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease

Study [year] Intervention (dosage) Subjects (study length) Effect
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)
 Tepel et al. [83] [2003] Acetylcysteine (600 mg twice per day) 134 HD patients (2 years) a) Ischemic stroke reduced by 36%
b) Cardiac events reduced by 30%
 Nolin et al. [84] [2010] Sustained-release NAC (600 mg or 1200 mg twice per day for 14 days) 24 ESRD patients Significant reduction in total homocysteine plasma concentrations
Vitamins C and E
 Boaz et al. [88] (SPACE study) [2000] High-dose α-tocopherol (800 IU daily) 196 HD patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (median 519 days) a) Significant reduction in myocardial infarctions and other cardiovascular events
b) No significant difference in overall survival
 Tarng et al. [91] [2004] Vitamin C (300 mg thrice weekly for 8 weeks) 60 HD patients Significant decrease in mean 8-OH-dG levels
 Morimoto et al. [85] [2005] Vitamin E-coated polysulfone membrane (18 months) 31 HD patients Significant reduction in ADMA, ox-LDL and MDA-LDL levels compared to baseline
 Nanayakkara et al. [89] (ATIC study) [2007] Regimen of pravastatin, vitamin E and homocysteine-lowering therapy 93 patients with eGFR < 38 ± 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 (2 years) a) Significant reduction in common carotid intima-thickness and albuminuria
b) No effect observed in renal function
 Takouli et al. [90] [2010] Vitamin E-coated cellulose acetate membrane (3 months) 9 HD patients a) Significant decrease in Hs-CRP, d-ROMs and IL-6 levels
b) Significant increase in total antioxidant capacity and SOD levels
  1. Abbreviations: HD hemodialysis, ESRD end-stage renal disease, 8-OG-dG 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, ADMA asymmetric dimethylarginine, ox-LDL oxidized low-density lipoprotein, MDA-LDL malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, Hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, d-ROMs reactive oxygen metabolites and derivatives, SOD superoxide dismutase, ESA erythropoiesis-stimulating agent