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Table 1 Representative risk factors for calciphylaxis based on previous reports [7, 12, 13]

From: Rapid regression of calciphylaxis in a hemodialysis patient after intensive management of disturbance of calcium and phosphate metabolism: a case report with literature review

・Renal insufficiency
・Hypercalcemia
・Hyperphosphatemia
・Hyperparathyroidism (both primary and secondary)
・Over-suppression of i-PTH with adynamic bone disease
・Vitamin K deficiency
・Female sex
・Obesity
・Diabetes mellitus
・Hypoalbuminemia
・Rapid weight loss
・Thrombophilia (e.g., antithrombin III deficiency, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, or lupus anticoagulant)
・Skin trauma (e.g., from subcutaneous injections)
・Medications (e.g., warfarin, VDRA, calcium carbonate, corticosteroids, and recombinant PTH)
  1. i-PTH intact parathyroid hormone, VDRA vitamin D receptor activators