Skip to main content

Table 2 The relation between HbA1c and sociodemographic and clinical factors

From: Diabetes-related knowledge in diabetic haemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study from Palestine

Variable Total Controlled Uncontrolled P value
N=147 (%) N=94 (%) N=53 (%)
Age category     
 Age ≤60 78 (53.1) 47 (50) 31 (58.5) 0.322
 Age >60 69 (46.9) 47 (50) 22 (41.5)
Gender     
 Male 76 (51.7) 50 (53.2) 26 (49.1) 0.630
 Female 71 (48.3 ) 44 (46.8) 27 (50.9)
Body mass index     
 Underweight (<18.5) 1 (0.7) 1 (1.1) 0 (0) 0.880
 Normal range (18.5-24.9) 38 (25.9) 25 (26.6) 13 (24.5)
 Preobese (overweight) (25-29.9) 43 (29.3) 27 (28.7) 16 (30.2)
 Obese (≥30) 65(44.2) 41 (43.6) 24 (45.3)
Residency     
 Village 85 (57.8) 54 (57.4) 31 (58.5) 0.580
 City 47 (32) 32 (34) 15 (28.3)
 Palestinian refugee camp 15 (10.2) 8 (8.5) 7 (13.2)
Living status     
 Live with family 141 (95.9) 88 (93.6) 53 (100) 0.064
 Live alone 6 (4.1) 6 (6.4) 0 (0)
Education level     
 No formal education 18 (12.2) 13 (13.8) 5 (9.4) 0.362
 Finshed Primary school 37 (25.2) 24 (25.5) 13 (24.5)
 Finshed high school 64 (43.5) 43 (45.7) 21 (39.6)
 College, university or post gradute 28 (19) 14 (14.9) 14 (26.4)
Marital status     
 Single , widow ,divorced 29 (19.7) 21 (22.3) 8 (15.1) 0.290
 Married 118 (80.3) 73 (77.7) 45 (84.9)
Occupation     
 Unemployed 132 (89.8) 85 (90.40) 47 (88.7) 0.737
 Employed 15 (10.2) 9 (9.6) 6 (11.3)
Household income (month)     
 Low (less than 550 US$) 77 (52.4) 49 (52.1) 28 (52.8) 0.320
 Moderate (550–1400 US$) 57 (38.8) 39 (41.5) 18 (34)
 High (more than 1400 US$) 13 (8.8) 6 (6.4) 7 (13.2)
Smoking     
 Not smoker 115 (78.2) 72 (76.6) 43 (81.1) 0.522
 Smoker 32 (21.8) 22 (23.4) 10 (18.9)
Duration of dialysis (year)     
 Less than 4 years 91(61.9) 56 (59.6) 3 5 (66) 0.438
 4 years or more 56(38.1) 38 (40.4) 18 (34)
Duration of diabtes (year)     
 1-3 years 8 (5.4) 7 (7.4) 1 (1.9) 0.053
 4-5 years 3 (2) 3 (3.2) 0 (0)
 More than 5 years 136 (92.5) 84 (89.4) 52 (98.1)
Frequency of dialysis (session/week)     
 2 sessions or less 19 (12.9) 12(12.8) 7 (13.2) 0.940
 3 sessions or more 128 (87.1) 82 (87.2) 46 (86.8)
Treatment hours per session     
 Less than 4 hours 125 (85) 81 (86.2) 44 (83) 0.607
 4 hours or more 22 (15) 13 (13.8) 9 (17)
Kidney transplant     
 Yes 3 (2) 2 (2.1) 1 (1.9) 0.705
 No 144 (98) 92 (97.9) 52 (98.1)
Total chronic diseases     
 None 7 (4.8) 4 (4.3) 3 (5.7) 0.137
 One 49 (33.3) 36 (38.3) 13 (24.5)
 Two 48 (32.7) 29 (30.9) 19 (35.8)
 Three or more 43 (29.3) 25 (26.6) 18 (34)
Total chronic medications     
 Less than 8 95 (64.6) 59 (62.8) 36 (67.9) 0.530
 8 or more 52 (35.4) 35 (37.2) 17 (32.1)
Drugs taking     
 Takes drugs alone 95 (64.6) 60 (63.8) 35 (66) 0.788
 Takes drugs by others 52 (35.4) 34 (36.2) 18 (34)
MDKT classification     
 Less than 7 9 (6.1) 7 (7.4) 2 (3.8) 0.517
 From 7 to 10 103 (70.1) 63 (67.0) 40 (75.5)
 11 or more 35 (23.8) 24 (25.5) 11 (20.8)
  1. US$, US dollars; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; MKDT, Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test