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Table 1 Original evidence of kidney disease in agricultural communities

From: Environment and chronic kidney disease in farmers

Study design, participants, age Main findings References
El Salvador
Bajo Lempa
775 individuals: 88.3% of total resident population in the region
Mean age: 39 years
Prevalence of CKD was 17.9% (men, 25.7%; women, 11.8%), higher than that reported internationally [34]
El Salvador
Five communities
1184 general population without previous kidney problems
37 ± 11 years
Among men in coastal communities, 18% had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared with 4% and 1% in communities 500 m above sea level. For agricultural workers, prevalence of reduced eGFR was highest for coastal sugarcane workers [10]
Chinandega and León
194 male workers
17–39 years
Reduced eGFR occurred in 16%, 9% and 2% of sugarcane cutters, construct workers and small-scale farmers, respectively. Mean age did not differ significantly between occupations [35]
2275 general population-based cohort
Age 18–70 years
CKD prevalence was 9.1% overall; 13.8% for men and 5.8% for women. Low education level and more years of agricultural work were significantly associated with CKD [24]
Sri Lanka
Three rural areas (North Central, Central, Southern)
6153 people from random cluster sampling method, age 20–96 years Proteinuric CKD of uncertain etiology was prevalent in the North Central area. Age, sex, occupation as a farmer, and exposure to agrochemicals were potential risk factors for CKD [36]
Andhra Pradesh
1184 adults through random sampling
45 ± 14 years
Prevalence of CKD 32.2%. Farmers (44.2% of subjects) showed a 20% greater prevalence of CKD compared to non-farmers in the fully adjusted model [17]
Upper Egypt
800 patients on renal replacement therapy
Mean age, 46 years
Main occupation was farming. Unknown etiology, at 27%, was a leading cause of end-stage kidney disease [19]
West Java
354 healthy young Javanese rice farmers
 ≥ 50 years, n = 197
 < 50 years, n = 157
Overall prevalences were 24.9% for CKD and 18.6% for CKDu. Odds ratio for high altitude was 2.0 (95%CI, 1.2–3.5) and longer use of insecticide and its frequency also seemed to represent risks [37]
Tierra Blanca
579 healthy people with any occupations
42 years (IQR, 31–50 years)
Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of low eGFR was 3.5% in the total cohort. Agriculture was the occupation with the highest adjusted prevalence of low eGFR (8.8%), associated with a > fivefold risk of low eGFR [18]
  1. CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration ratio; CKDu, CKD of unknown etiology; IQR, interquartile range