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Table 3 Literature review of CES patients with bleeding events

From: Cholesterol embolization syndrome and intra-abdominal bleeding immediately after initiation of hemodialysis: a case report with literature review

Reference Age Sex Invasive vascular intervention Anticoagulant Type of bleeding Pathology Therapy Outcome
Sabatine et al. [17] 69 Male None Warfarin Pulmonary hemorrhage Open-lung biopsy Supportive Died
Moolenaar and Lamers [18] 69 Male None None Bleeding colonic ulcers Colon biopsy Resection Survived
Moolenaar and Lamers [18] 68 Female None Oral anticoagulant Melena
Duodenal erosions
Duodenum biopsy Supportive Died
Moolenaar and Lamers [18] 71 Male Aortography Oral anticoagulant Occult blood loss
Duodenitis
Duodenum biopsy Supportive Died
Moolenaar and Lamers [18] 72 Male Aortography
Aorta bifurcation prosthesis
None Rectal bleeding
Sigmoid necrosis
Sigmoid resection Resection Died
Our case 68 Male Coronary angiography
Coronary artery bypass grafting
Endovascular aneurysm repair
Heparin for hemodialysis Intra-abdominal bleeding
Omental bleeding
Omentum resection Resection Died from sepsis unrelated to CES