Our experience of the novel “flexible stylet method” for insertion of PD catheter in eight high-risk patients
© The Author(s) 2016
Received: 28 September 2015
Accepted: 20 August 2016
Published: 20 November 2016
Perforation of intra-abdominal organs such as the bowel and urinary bladder is one of the most serious complications related to peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) insertion procedures. Such a risk increases in patients with a history of prior abdominal surgery or irradiation. The “alpha-replacer” is a unique wire that is usually soft, but becomes harder if coiled in the hand. Application of this equipment as a stylet might improve the safety and effectiveness of PDC insertion.
A total of eight high-risk patients (organic adhesion, bleeding tendency, poor cardiac function, or malnutrition, or some of these) underwent a new peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) insertion procedure named “flexible stylet method” using alpha-replacer as a stylet. As a consequence, the maneuver was completed successfully in all patients and neither patient developed any major complications.
The novel “flexible stylet method” as described herein offers effective and safe treatment.
Perforation of intra-abdominal organs such as the bowel and urinary bladder is one of the most serious complications related to the peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) insertion procedure . Such a risk increases in patients with a history of prior abdominal surgery or irradiation. Although the risk of perforation is lower in open surgical insertion than in the blind or modified Seldinger technique , the risk of organ perforation is not completely avoidable if a hard stylet is used. Although the use of laparoscopic assistance lessens the risk of organ perforation , such beneficence of laparoscopy cannot be received by high-risk cases to which application of general anesthesia is impossible.
To make PDC catheter insertion procedures less invasive, we have developed a PDC insertion technique “flexible stylet method” using a unique equipment “alpha-replacer” as a stylet, and applied this new technique to high-risk patients.
Cardiorenal syndrome type 2
Bronchial asthma: since 62 years old
Necrosis of left knee joint: 73 years old
Stenosis of lumber spinal canal: since 75 years old
Chronic heart failure: since 77 years old
Pacemaker implantation for sick sinus syndrome: 79 years old
Idiopathic thrombocythemia: since 80 years old
Non-functioning parathyroid tumor: since 81 years old
Cardiorenal syndrome type 2
Pemphigoid: since 55 years old
Replacement of mitral and aortic valves: 56 years old
Endoscopic mucosal resection for sigmoid cancer: 64 years old
Chronic heart failure: since 72 years old
Pelvic irradiation (70 Gy in total) for rectal cancer: 74 years old
Hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis: since 75 years old
Constrictive pericarditis: since 81 years old
Pacemaker implantation for bradycardiac atrial fibrillation: 81 years old
Total hysterectomy for uterine myoma: 40 years old
Diabetes mellitus and hypertension: since 54 years old
Right oophorectomy for right ovarian cancer: 70 years old
Left cerebral ischemic stroke: 81 years old
Initiation of hemodialysis: 48 years old
Atrial fibrillation: since 65 years old
Bleeding tendency due to liver cirrhosis: since 66 years old
Massive ascites due to liver cirrhosis: since 67 years old
Partial hepatectomy (donor of liver transplantation): 53 years old
Left inguinal hernia surgery: 62 years old
Impaired cardiac function due to undetermined etiology: since 63 years old
Chronic heart failure: since 57 years old
Bleeding tendency due to warfarin usage: since 57 years old
Multiple myeloma accompanying AL amyloidosis: since 62 years old
Implantation surgery of implantable cardiovascular defibrillator: 65 years old
Severe orthostatic hypotension: since 66 years old
Bilateral peroneal nerve palsy: 60 years old
Hemorrhagic stroke: 70 years old
Abdominal wall hernia surgery: 73 years old
Open cholecystectomy for cholecystolithiasis: 35 years old
Details of flexible stylet method
Additional file 1: The general feature of alpha-replacer.
Additional file 2: The representative maneuver of flexible stylet method.
Additional file 3: The maneuver of flexible stylet method in real surgical field.
In all cases, exchange of peritoneal dialysate was started the next day of PDC insertion. Temporal bloody effluent was observed for a few days in case 2. Besides, no complications were developed in all cases. After PDC insertion, the exchange of peritoneal dialysate was undergone without any trouble in all cases: neither dialysate leakage nor peritonitis was observed. All patients were discharged from the hospital after they mastered manipulation regarding peritoneal fluid exchange (6 to 37 days after PDC insertion).
In this report, we adapted the new technique named “flexible stylet method” for the insertion of PDC to ESRD patients with high risks (organic adhesion, bleeding tendency, poor cardiac function, or malnutrition, or some of these). As a result, we completed successful maneuver without any severe complication.
The flexible stylet method described herein is considered superior to that using a hard stylet with regard to at least three points. The first point is safety. As alpha-replacer is very soft when the equipment itself is inserted toward the minor pelvic space (for alpha-replacer is not hardened at this timing), the risk of organ injury can be minimized. In fact, bowel injury due to alpha-replacer usage has not been reported until now [4, 5]. The second point is effectiveness. Although a fluoroscopically guided PDC insertion procedure using a fine guide-wire has already been reported [6, 7], the use of alpha-replacer that can be hardened when needed offers us more accurate placement of the PDC tip into the minor pelvic space. The third point is the simplicity of the procedure, as described herein.
The alpha-replacer is a unique equipment developed specifically for transluminal replacement of a displaced PDC, and has a double-spiral structure that confers unique characteristics to the equipment . By coiling this in the hand, the free tip becomes hard, and release allows the free tip to become soft (Additional file 1). Proper adaptation of such characteristics in procedures should improve both the safety and success rate of PDC implantation.
The flexible stylet method is considered safe, effective, and simple. However, some limitations regarding this method remain. The first limitation is radiation exposure for fluoroscopic guidance. The second limitation is the somewhat complexity for the staffs of theater. The third limitation involves indications. We applied the present method to limited high-risk cases only. However, from the viewpoint of safety management, the flexible stylet method might be applied also to moderate or normal risk cases. The fourth and most important limitation is that the number of treated patient is relatively small (eight patients). The incidence of perforations reported in previous report is about 0.7 to 2.6 % (one complication versus 40 to 140 PDC insertion) . Thus, larger number of patient might be required to prove “real” incidence of perforations regarding this flexible method.
As the mean age of ESRD patients initiated dialysis therapy is increasing year by year , potential risk concerning PDC insertion is thought to be also increasing. We believe that flexible stylet method contributes to wide utilization of peritoneal dialysis therapy in the era of an aging ESRD population.
In conclusion, the flexible stylet method as described herein offers effective and safe treatment, especially for high-risk cases.
We thank Thermo Co. (Tokyo, Japan) and Mrs. Kaoru Terawaki for the assistance of videotaping (appendices 1 and 2).
HT made substantial contributions to the stabilization of the present procedure. NF made technical contributions to stabilize the present procedure. KA, AY, MN, and TK helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript submitted for publication.
HT is the director of Dialysis Center, Fukushima Medical University. NF, KA, and AN are the staff doctors of Dialysis Center, Fukushima Medical University. HT, NF, KA, and AN have provided medical and surgical care to many PD patients and have performed clinical research. MN is the director of the Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Fukushima Medical University; he helped to draft the manuscript. TK is one of the developers of “alpha-replacer”; he helped to draft the manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Rotellar C, Sivarajan S, Mazzoni MJ, Aminrazavi M, Mosher WF, Rakowski TA, et al. Bowel perforation in CAPD patients. Perit Dial Int. 1992;12:396–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rana TA, Cramp H, Akoh JA. Evaluation of medical insertion of peritoneal dialysis catheters. Int J Nephrol Urol. 2011;3:46–53.Google Scholar
- Ögünç G. A new laparoscopic technique for CAPD catheter placement. Perit Dial Int. 1999;19:493–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Terawaki H, Nakayama M, Nakano H, Hasegawa T, Ogura M, Hosoya T, et al. Transluminal replacement of displaced peritoneal catheter using a special “alpha-replacer” guidewire: effectiveness and limitations. Perit Dial Int. 2007;27:702–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saka Y, Ito Y, Iida Y, Maruyama S, Matsuo S. Efficacy and safety of fluoroscopic manipulation using the alpha-replacer for peritoneal catheter malposition. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2005;19:521–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zaman F, Pervez A, Atray NK, Murphy S, Work J, Abreo KD. Fluoroscopy-assisted placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters by nephrologists. Semin Dial. 2005;18:247–51.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moon JY, Song S, Jung KH, Park M, Lee SH, Ihm CG, et al. Fluoroscopically guided peritoneal dialysis catheter placement: long-term results from a single center. Perit Dial Int. 2008;28:163–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abreo K, Sequeira A. Bowel perforation during peritoneal dialysis catheter placement. Am J Kidney Dis DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.01.010 (in press)
- Nakai S, Hanafusa N, Masakane I, Taniguchi M, Hamano T, Shoji T, et al. An overview of regular dialysis treatment in Japan (as of 31 December 2012). Ther Apher Dial. 2014;18:535–602.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar